Major Life Changes and Stress
A stressful change in life patterns can trigger a depressive episode. Such stressful events may include a serious loss, a difficult relationship, trauma, or financial problems.
Little or No Social Support
Having few or no supportive relationships can increase the risk of depression in both men and women. However, rates of depression have been found to be higher in women who are at home with young children, and those who describe themselves as isolated, compared to women who are working or have a supportive social network. In many cases, restricted social networks have been found to precede the onset of depression.
Certain psychological factors put people at risk for depression. People with low self-esteem, who consistently view themselves and the world with pessimism, or who are readily overwhelmed by stress, may be prone to depression.
Other psychological factors, such as perfectionism and sensitivity to loss and rejection, may increase a person’s risk for depression. Depression is also more common in people with chronic anxiety disorders and borderline and avoidant personality disorders.
Low Socioeconomic Status
Being in a low socioeconomic group is a risk factor for depression. This may be due to factors such as perceived low social status, cultural factors, financial problems, stressful environments, social isolation, and greater daily stress.
Women experience depression about twice as often as men. Hormonal factors may contribute to the increased rate of depression in women, particularly such factors as premenstrual changes, pregnancy, miscarriage, postpartum period, pre-menopause, and menopause. Many women face additional stresses, such as responsibilities at work and home, single parenthood, and caring for children and aging parents.
The elderly are at a particularly high risk for depression. Furthermore, they are notoriously undertreated for depression. Depression is a disorder at any age, and deserves serious treatment.
Insomnia, Sleep Disorders
Chronic sleep problems are strongly associated with depression, and should be treated to avoid complications.
Certain medications have been implicated in depression, including:
Certain medications for heart problems, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and asthma