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Empathy Can Be Measured in a Resting Brain

A new study shows that a person’s ability to feel empathy can be assessed by looking at their brain activity while they are resting rather than when they are engaged in specific tasks.

Traditionally, empathy is assessed through the use of questionnaires and psychological assessments. The findings of this study offer an alternative to people who may have difficulty filling out questionnaires, such as those with severe mental illness or autism.

“Assessing empathy is often the hardest in the populations that need it most,” said senior author Dr. Marco Iacoboni, professor of psychiatry and biobehavioral sciences at the David Geffen School of Medicine at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA).

“Empathy is a cornerstone of mental health and well-being. It promotes social and cooperative behavior through our concern for others. It also helps us to infer and predict the internal feelings, behavior and intentions of others.”

Iacoboni has long studied empathy in humans. His previous studies have involved testing empathy in people presented with moral dilemmas or watching someone in pain.

The new study involved 58 male and female participants ages 18 to 35. Their resting brain activity was evaluated using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), a noninvasive technique for measuring and mapping brain activity through small changes in blood flow. Participants were asked to let their minds wander while keeping their eyes still, by looking at a fixation cross on a black screen.

The participants also completed questionnaires designed to measure empathy. They rated how statements such as “I often have tender, concerned feelings for people less fortunate than me” and “I sometimes try to understand my friends better by imagining how things look from their perspective” described them on a five-point scale from “not well” to “very well.”

The researchers wanted to see if they could predict the participants’ empathic disposition by analyzing the brain scans.

The predictions were made by looking into resting activity in specific brain networks that previous studies had shown were important for empathy. Researchers used a form of artificial intelligence called machine learning, which can pick up subtle patterns in data that more traditional data analyses might not.

“We found that even when not engaged directly in a task that involves empathy, brain activity within these networks can reveal people’s empathic disposition,” Iacoboni said. “The beauty of the study is that the MRIs helped us predict the results of each participant’s questionnaire.”

The findings could help health care professionals better assess empathy in people with autism or schizophrenia, who may have difficulties filling out questionnaires or expressing emotion.

“People with these conditions are thought to lack empathy,” he said. “But if we can demonstrate that their brains have the capability for empathy, we can work to improve it through training and the use of other therapies.”

Furthermore, said lead author Leonardo Christov-Moore, a postdoctoral fellow currently at USC’s Brain and Creativity Institute, this technique may be expanded to improve treatment as well as diagnosis.

“The predictive power of machine learning algorithms like this one, when applied to brain data, can also help us predict how well a given patient will respond to a given intervention, helping us tailor optimal therapeutic strategies from the get-go,” said Christov-Moore.

The study, published in Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience, adds to a growing body of research suggesting that brains at rest are as active as brains engaged in a task, and that brain networks in the resting brain may interact in a similar fashion as when they are engaged in a task.

Source: University of California- Los Angeles Health Sciences

Empathy Can Be Measured in a Resting Brain

Traci Pedersen

Traci Pedersen is a professional writer with over a decade of experience. Her work consists of writing for both print and online publishers in a variety of genres including science chapter books, college and career articles, and elementary school curriculum.

APA Reference
Pedersen, T. (2020). Empathy Can Be Measured in a Resting Brain. Psych Central. Retrieved on September 27, 2020, from https://psychcentral.com/news/2020/02/20/empathy-can-be-measured-in-a-resting-brain/154325.html
Scientifically Reviewed
Last updated: 20 Feb 2020 (Originally: 20 Feb 2020)
Last reviewed: By a member of our scientific advisory board on 20 Feb 2020
Published on Psych Central.com. All rights reserved.