Experiencing stress or having too much caffeine in your system can keep you up for hours on end. But if you’re spending multiple nights awake, it might be something more serious.
The good news is that sleep disorders can be managed with medication and therapy. By knowing the signs of a sleep disorder, you can get the proper help when it’s time to hit the hay.
Sleep disorders, or sleep-wake disorders, are chronic conditions involving an abnormal sleep cycle stopping you from getting the right amount of sleep. While adults need an average of
Both work together to keep you sharp and alert for the next day by improving learning, attention, and the processing of new memories. Sleep is also vital in clearing out any waste that built up the brain while you were awake.
But people with sleep-wake disorders are chronically sleep deprived, or oversaturated, and miss out on these benefits of sleep. Seeking help and finding the best treatment plan could help you continue living a healthy life.
The almanac for all things mental health is called the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5).
According to the DSM-5, people with a sleep disorder have the following symptoms in common:
- excessive daytime sleepiness
- trouble with attention and memory
- potential symptoms of depression
- insomnia or difficulty staying asleep
Sleep-wake disorders fall under an umbrella of sleep conditions, but all are manageable with proper treatment.
Common sleep disorders
Circadian rhythm sleep disorders occur when the body’s internal clock, which is involved in regulating when it’s time to be awake and when it’s time to go to bed, is disrupted.
Common types of circadian rhythm sleep disorder include:
Jet lag disorder. This occurs when your
Shift work disorder. This is a condition that causes you to have difficulty sleeping because of a nontraditional work schedule, such as taking on night shifts for your job.
Delayed sleep phase disorder. This is when your sleep patterns are “delayed” by 2 hours or more in a regular sleep schedule. People who consider themselves “night owls” tend to have this condition, including 7% to 16% of teenagers and young adults.
Advanced sleep-wake phase disorder. This happens when you go to bed and wake up too early or too late compared with traditional sleep schedules. People with this condition can sleep as early as 6 p.m. and have their internal clock geared to start the day at 2 a.m.
Other common sleep disorders that disrupt rest include:
Insomnia. This is a sleep disorder that causes you to have trouble sleeping or getting good quality sleep. People with long-term diagnosed
Nightmare disorder. About 50% to 85% of adults report having at least one nightmare in their life, and the likelihood of this happening decreases as you get older. But 2% to 8% of people will continue to experience severe and chronic nightmares, preventing them from getting a good night’s rest.
Substance/medication-induced sleep disorder. This happens when you take drugs such as alcohol or stimulants like cocaine that temporarily
Severe sleep disorders
The following sleep disorders are classified as severe for their effect on people’s well-being:
Obstructive sleep apnea. This is a sleep-related breathing disorder where you can temporarily stop breathing. This can happen at least five times an hour, and each time can last from a few seconds to minutes. People with this condition may have trouble staying awake in the daytime.
Narcolepsy. This is a neurological condition where there are disruptions in brain signals that tell you when to sleep and when to stay alert. About
Restless legs syndrome. This affects 7% to 8% of people in the United States. It’s a condition where you have an overwhelming urge to move your legs and other body parts, especially at night.
Because sleep-wake disorders cover a broad range of sleep disorders, you might feel overwhelmed by the labels that clinicians use to describe what you’re feeling.
Here are some terms that may be used to describe sleep disorder terms:
|Clinicians call it
|How they explain it
|You’re a deep sleeper when you can sleep, but you tend to snore a lot. Your partner has brought up concerns that you stop breathing for seconds to nearly a minute while you rest.
|This is a condition where you’re temporarily unable to breathe during sleep. Obstructive sleep apnea occurs when the upper airway is blocked during rest. Central sleep apnea is when there’s no blockage but your brain is having trouble sending signals to breathe during sleep.
|You’re more irritable and find it challenging to focus on things during the day. You’re nodding off and having a harder time staying awake during the day.
|This is a neurological condition where you feel excessive sleepiness in the daytime. People with idiopathic hypersomnia wake up groggy and unfocused, even if they took a long nap or had a full night’s rest.
|You’re scared of going to sleep because of recurring night terrors or nightmares. Your partner may also have pointed out odd behaviors like sleepwalking or acting out your dreams.
|This is an umbrella term used to describe sleep disorders involving any abnormal movements or strange perceptions of dreams during sleep. It occurs when transitioning between REM sleep and non-REM sleep. Clinicians tend to diagnose these conditions more in children than in adults.
|It’s more difficult to sleep in the summer than in the winter. You might also have emotions that run deeper than feeling “sad,” even if you think there’s no reason to feel this way.
|Seasonal affective disorder
|People with seasonal affective disorder sleep but continue to feel drowsy during the day. A common symptom is sleeping for an extra 2 or more hours in the winter than in the summer. About
|You have trouble falling asleep at regular bedtime hours and tend to be sleepy in the middle of the day. You might be having more sleeping problems when traveling or working night shifts.
|Circadian rhythm disorders
|Your body’s internal clock regulates when it’s time to sleep and when it’s time to be awake. These conditions are characterized by disruptions that indicate that your body isn’t in sync with light/darkness from your environment and other daily activities.
Sleep-wake disorders are complex and driven by many different environmental, psychological, and biological factors, including:
Circadian rhythm disruptions
Your body runs on a 24-hour internal clock called the
When your internal clock is out of whack — think about when you pulled all-nighters to study for a test or how you felt when traveling to other time zones — your body will send mixed sleep signals at inappropriate times of the day.
Clock genes run your circadian rhythm. When
Clock gene disruptions have also been linked to anxiety disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia.
Mental health conditions
According to the Anxiety & Depression Association of America, having an anxiety disorder can manifest into sleeping problems and sleep disorders like insomnia.
The short-range, high-energy light that our handheld electronics and TVs use to power their screens — which our brains interpret as daylight — interferes with our bodies’ melatonin release and
It’s a direct cause-effect relationship and not something we can just muscle through. Blue light is very disruptive.
In studies like
There are several risk factors for sleep disorders, including:
For a doctor to diagnose a sleep disorder, they might ask you to fill out a sleep diary to track when you sleep and how much you get per night.
They may also ask you to wear a motion sensor for 14 days to better understand your rest-activity patterns.
If you have trouble sleeping, your doctor will be looking for the following before giving an
- trouble sleeping and waking up multiple times in the night
- waking up early in the morning without being able to fall asleep again
- sleeping problems that last for at least 3 months or occur at least three nights each week
- sleeping difficulties that are causing problems in your social life, job, or school
- no previous diagnosis of a different sleep disorder
- sleeping problems that are not due to a medication or drug
- any psychiatric disorder that doesn’t have insomnia as a symptom
Having a sleep-wake disorder doesn’t have to hamper your life. With the proper therapy and medication, these disorders are manageable.
Getting exposure to artificial sunlight for 30 to 90 minutes at a time can reset your internal clock and shift your sleeping patterns to a more desired schedule. Over time, you can reduce light therapy to 15 minutes each day or use it only a few times during the week.
Working out, even leisurely, is helpful to sleep. But if you’ve already been sweating before hitting the sack to no avail, you might have to tweak your exercise time to no later than 3 hours before bed, so it doesn’t have the opposite effect and keep your heart rate up and recovery time down.
Tweaking your habits to restore sound sleep
Other strategies for sound sleep include:
- taking any prescription medications on time
- being mindful about your exposure to blue light before bedtime, which may mean moving your TV, computer, and other electronics out of the bedroom to avoid using them as it gets closer to bedtime
- trying not to consume alcohol, coffee, or big dinners right before bed
- optimizing your sleep by keeping your bedroom dark, quiet, and at a cozy temperature
- maintaining a consistent sleep schedule, even on weekends and vacations