Alcoholism has a lasting impact on children.


Most of the adult children of alcoholics who I know underestimate the effects of being raised in an alcoholic family. Perhaps it’swishful thinking. Perhaps its denial. More likelyits shame and simply not knowingthat adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs), as a group, tend to struggle with a particular set of issues.

If youre an adult child of an alcoholic, you feel different and disconnected. You sense thatsomething is wrong, but you don’t know what. It can be a relief torealize that some of yourstruggles are common to ACOAs.

If you grew up in an alcoholic or addicted family, chances are it had a profound impact on you. Often, the full impact isn’t realized until many years later. The feelings, personality traits, and relationship patterns that you developed to cope with an alcoholic parent, come with you to work, romantic relationships, parenting, and friendships. They show up as anxiety, depression, substance abuse, stress, anger, and relationship problems.

The effects of growing up in an alcoholic family are varied. Many ACOAs are very successful, hard-working, and goal-driven.Some struggle with alcohol or other addictions themselves. Others becomecodependent.

Children crave and need predictability. Your needs must be met consistently in order for you to feel safe and develop secure attachments. This didnt happen in your dysfunctional family. Alcoholic families are in “survival mode.” Usually, everyone is tiptoeing around the alcoholic, trying to keep the peace and avoid a blow-up.

Denial is prolific. You really can’t understand addiction as a child, so you blame yourself and feel “crazy” because your experiences didnt line up with what adults were telling you (namely that everything is fine and normal).

Home could be scary. Addicts are often unpredictable, sometimes abusive, and always checked-out emotionally (and sometimes physically). You never knew who would be there or what mood theyd be in when you came home from school. Stress levels were through the roof. There may have been a lot of overt tension and conflict. Or you might have sensed all the tension just below the surface, like a volcano waiting to erupt.

Growing up in an alcoholic home, you feel insecure and crave acceptance. The constant lying, manipulation, and harsh parenting makes it hard to trust people. It also leaves you highly sensitive to criticism and conflict. You work hard, always trying to prove your worth and make others happy.

Because as a child life felt out of control and unpredictable, as an adult you try to control everyone and everything that feels out of control (which is a lot). This leads to controlling behaviors in your relationships. You struggle to express yourself, subconsciously remembering how unsafe it was to speak up in your family.

1) Being rigid and inflexible

Youhave a hard time with transitions and changes. A sudden change of plans or anything that feels out of your control can trigger your anxiety and/or anger.Youthrive on routine and predictability. These things help you to feel safe.

2) Difficulty trusting and being closed off

People have let you down and hurt you. It’s natural to close off your heart as a form of self-protection. It’s hard to trust people (including yourself). You hold back emotionally and will only reveal so much of your true self. This limits the amount of intimacy you can have with your partner and can leave you feeling disconnected.

3) Shame and loneliness

Shame is the feeling that youre bad or wrong and unworthy of love. There are so many things that alcoholic families don’t talk about – to each other and especially to the outside world. These secrets breed shame. When there are things so awful that they can’t be talked about, you feel there is something awful about you and that you’ll be judged and cast away. When you feel unworthy, you cant love yourself and you cant let others love you either.

4) Self-criticism

External messages that you’re bad, crazy, and unlovable become internalized. You’re incredibly hard on yourself and struggle to forgive or love yourself. During childhood, you came to believe that you’re fundamentally flawed, and the cause of the family dysfunction.

5) Perfectionism

You try to be perfect in order to avoid criticism (both internal and external). This sets you on a treadmill of always having to prove your worth by achieving more and more. But your achievements arent satisfying.Perfectionismand low self-esteem force to you set your goals higher and continue to try to prove yourself.

6) People-pleasing

You have a strong need to be liked and accepted. This again stems from experiencing rejection, blame, neglect, or abuse, and a core feeling of being unlovable and flawed. People-pleasing is also an effort to avoid conflict. Conflict was scary in your family.

7) Being highly sensitive

You’re actually a highly sensitive person, but you’veshut down youremotions in order to cope. You’re sensitive to criticism, which fuels your people-pleasing. But you’re also a highly compassionate and caring person.

8) Being overly responsible

Out of necessity, you took on some of your parents’responsibilities. These may have been practical (like paying the bills) or emotional (like comforting your siblings when Mom and Dad fought). Now you continue to take responsibility for other people’s feelings or for problems that you didn’t cause.

9) Anxiety

ACOAs have high levels of anxiety. Childhood fear and trauma left you in a hyper-vigilant state. You oftensense problems when there aren’t any. Youre on edge, tense, and full of worry. Anxiety keeps you trapped as whenever you try to move away from the other eight traits, it flares up.

10) Taking care of or rescuing others even when it hurts you

Children with alcoholic parents often have to take care of their parents and siblings. You may remember being praised or encouraged to be a caretaker from a very young age.You may also remember trying to get your mom or dad to stop drinking, mistakenly thinking that you could control their drinking and fix your family’s problems. As an adult, you still spend a lot of time and energy taking care of other people and their problems (sometimes trying to rescue or “fix” them). As a result, you neglect your own needs,get into dysfunctional relationships, and allow others to take advantage of your kindness.

You may find that you identify with some or all of these traits. There are many other lists of common ACOA traits available. The most popular is probably theLaundry Listfrom Adult Children of Alcoholics World Service Organization. I developed this list from years of clinical practice with ACOAs. You might like tocreate your own personal list, as well. Healing can start by simply knowing that you arent alone. Groups like Al-Anon and ACA (Adult Children of Alcoholics) provide free support and recovery.

Additional articles about codependency and Adult Children of Alcoholics that you may find helpful:

10 Things You Need to Know About Codependency

Recommended Books for Adult Children of Alcoholics

Adult Children of Alcoholics and the Need to Feel in Control

What Every Adult Child of an Alcoholic Needs to Know About Perfectionism

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2016 Sharon Martin, LCSW. All rights reserved. This post was originally published on The Good Men Project. Image: Donnie Ray Jones/ Flickr.