Bipolar disorder (also known as “manic depression”) is a disorder that is often not recognized or misdiagnosed as simply depression by the patient, relatives, friends — and even physicians. An early sign of bipolar disorder may be hypomania — a state in which the person shows a high level of energy, excessive moodiness or irritability, and impulsive or reckless behavior. Hypomania may feel good to the person who experiences it. Thus, even when family and friends learn to recognize the mood swings, the individual often will deny that anything is wrong.
In its early stages, bipolar disorder may masquerade as a problem other than mental illness. For example, it may first appear as alcohol or drug abuse, or poor school or work performance.
One of the usual differential diagnoses for bipolar disorder is that the symptoms (listed below) are not better accounted for by Schizoaffective Disorder and is not superimposed on Schizophrenia, Schizophreniform Disorder, Delusional Disorder, or Psychotic Disorder Not Otherwise Specified.
And as with nearly all mental disorder diagnoses, the symptoms of manic depression must cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. Symptoms also can not be the result of substance use or abuse (e.g., alcohol, drugs, medications) or caused by a general medical condition.
Specific symptoms of the various types of bipolar disorder:
Bipolar I Disorder
Bipolar I Disorderrepresents a number of separate diagnoses, depending upon the type of mood most recently experienced.
- Bipolar I Disorder, Single Manic Episode
- Bipolar I Disorder, Most Recent Episode Hypomanic
- Bipolar I Disorder, Most Recent Episode Manic
- Bipolar I Disorder, Most Recent Episode Mixed
Bipolar II Disorder
- Presence (or history) of one or more Major Depressive Episodes and at least one Hypomanic Episode. Additionally, there has never been a Manic Episode or a Mixed Episode.
Psych Central. (2013). Bipolar Disorder Symptoms. Psych Central. Retrieved on March 12, 2014, from http://psychcentral.com/disorders/bipolar-disorder-symptoms/
Symptom criteria summarized from:
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fifth edition. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fourth edition. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
Last reviewed: By John M. Grohol, Psy.D. on 26 May 2013
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