A new Australian study compares the impact of eighteen major life events on well-being. The research is unique and is the first to look at how significant life issues influence our emotions or happiness, and our life satisfaction.
As we all know, life is full of ups and downs. Major life events such as marriage, death of a loved one, divorce or bankruptcy all affect our well-being. Investigators compared the differing impact of these events on the happiness and life satisfaction and how long that impact lasts. The research is salient given the COVID environment and the new challenge to physical and economic health of many individuals.
Investigators examined 18 major life events, and how they affected a sample of 14,000 Australians between 2002 and 2016. The data was taken from the HILDA survey, which examines the social, health and economic conditions of Australian households using face-to-face interviews and self-completion questionnaires.
The study, “The differential impact of major life events on cognitive and affective well-being,” authored by researchers from the University of Technology Sydney (UTS) and the University of was Sydney. The paper itself appears in the journal SSM – Population Health.
Investigators discovered that some events, such as moving to a new house, getting fired or getting a promotion, had little impact on well-being, while others, such as the death of a partner or a large financial loss, had profound impacts.
“Marriage, childbirth and a major financial gain produced the greatest elevation to well-being, however they did not lead to long-lasting happiness — the positive effect generally wore off after two years.
“However, there was also an anticipatory effect for marriage and childbirth, with well-being increasing prior to these events,” says lead researcher, UTS economist Dr Nathan Kettlewell.
“The life events that saw the deepest plunge in well-being were the death of a partner or child, separation, a large financial loss or a health shock. But even for these negative experiences, on average people recovered to their pre-shock level of well-being by around four years,” he says.
Researches believe that a better understanding of how life events impact well-being, and how long it takes to adapt, can help government and policy makers develop resources to improve the happiness and welfare of society.
“A growing number of countries, including the UK, Iceland and New Zealand, as well as the OECD, are measuring well-being, alongside economic growth, as a way to gauge success in improving the lives of citizens,” Dr Kettlewell says.
“Information on well-being also helps clinicians and healthcare professionals better understand the repercussions of major life crises such as the death of a loved one, a health shock or job loss.”
The researchers examined two different types of well-being.
The first was affective well-being, which reflected happiness, or the frequency and intensity of positive or negative emotions. The second was cognitive well-being, which refers to a more deliberate, goal-directed evaluation of life satisfaction.
While some life events such as marriage and retirement had positive effects on cognitive well-being, the net effect of positive events on affective well-being was close to zero.
Pregnancy and childbirth in particular saw the largest gap between the two domains. Measures of life satisfaction were quite positive in the first year after the birth of a child, while happiness or emotional well-being actually declined during this time.
The researchers also accounted for how life events often occur together, for example divorce and financial loss, to tease out the differing impacts.
The four most common life events were moving house, finding a new job, a serious injury or illness in a close family member and pregnancy. The least frequent were becoming widowed and getting married.
“While chasing after happiness may be misplaced, the results suggest that the best chances for enhancing well-being may lie in protecting against negative shocks, for example by establishing strong relationships, investing in good health and managing financial risks,” says Dr Kettlewell.
“And we can take consolation from the fact that, although it takes time, well-being can recover from even the worst circumstances.”
Source: University of Technology Sydney