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Women Living in Greener Neighborhoods Tend to Have Later Menopause

Older women living in greener neighborhoods may experience a later onset of menopause, according to a new study published in the journal Environment International.

Previous research has established a link between living near green spaces and a wide variety of benefits, including a lower risk of obesity, improved attention capacity in children and slower physical decline in old age.

Now, for the first time, a study led by the University of Bergen and the Barcelona Institute for Global Health (ISGlobal) reveals that living in a greener neighborhood is also linked to older age at the onset of menopause.

“Menopause is a marker of health and can be associated with undesirable alterations in body physiology and mental health,” said Payam Dadvand, researcher at ISGlobal and coordinator of the study.

In fact, later age at natural menopause has been positively associated with overall survival, life expectancy and reduced mortality.

“If confirmed, our findings will add to the body of evidence on the health benefits of green space and help policymakers to implement interventions aimed at decelerating reproductive aging in our rapidly urbanising world,” said Dadvand.

The international study analyzed the data of 1,955 women from nine countries (Spain, France, Germany, Belgium, United Kingdom, Sweden, Estonia, Iceland and Norway) who had participated in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS).

During a 20-year period, participants completed questionnaires on their health and lifestyle factors and underwent blood sampling. The availability and extent of green space in their neighborhoods was also calculated.

The results show that women living in neighborhoods with little green space became menopausal 1.4 years earlier than those in living in the greenest areas. On average, age at menopause was 51.7 years for women living in the greenest areas, compared with 50.3 years for women living in areas with little green space.

In addition to genetic factors, age at menopause is influenced by lifestyle factors such as smoking, obesity, physical activity and the use of oral contraceptives. A number of biological processes could explain the relationship between green space and older age at menopause.

“We know that stress increases the level of cortisol in the blood, and numerous studies have shown that exposure to green spaces reduces it,” said Kai Triebner, postdoctoral visiting researcher at ISGlobal and lead author of the study.

“Low cortisol levels have been associated with increased levels of estradiol, an important female sex hormone. Perhaps women who live near green space have lower cortisol levels, which would allow them to maintain higher levels of estradiol, which may in turn delay the onset of menopause.”

“Exposure to green space is also associated with a lower risk of certain mental health conditions, such as depression, which is also associated with younger age at menopause.”

Source: Barcelona Institute for Global Health (ISGlobal)

Women Living in Greener Neighborhoods Tend to Have Later Menopause

Traci Pedersen

Traci Pedersen is a professional writer with over a decade of experience. Her work consists of writing for both print and online publishers in a variety of genres including science chapter books, college and career articles, and elementary school curriculum.

APA Reference
Pedersen, T. (2020). Women Living in Greener Neighborhoods Tend to Have Later Menopause. Psych Central. Retrieved on September 29, 2020, from
Scientifically Reviewed
Last updated: 19 Feb 2020 (Originally: 19 Feb 2020)
Last reviewed: By a member of our scientific advisory board on 19 Feb 2020
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