Even Short Bouts of Exercise Can Hike Brain Connectivity, Efficiency
If you want to learn a new motor skill, a new study suggests it’s a good idea to go for a short run after each practice session.
The study, published in NeuroImage, demonstrates that exercise performed immediately after practicing a new motor skill improves its long-term retention.
More specifically, the research shows that as little as a single 15-minute bout of cardiovascular exercise increases brain connectivity and efficiency.
It’s a discovery that could accelerate recovery of motor skills in patients who have suffered a stroke or who face mobility problems following an injury, say researchers.
In earlier work, Dr. Marc Roig, the senior author on the study, demonstrated that exercise helps consolidate muscle or motor memory.
What he and other researchers at McGill University sought to discover this time was why exactly this was the case. What was going on in the brain as the mind and the muscles interacted? What was it that helped the body retain motor skills?
To find out, the research team asked study participants to perform two tasks.
The first, known as a “pinch task” consists of gripping an object akin to a gamers’ joystick — known as a dynamometer — and using varying degrees of force to move a cursor up and down to connect red rectangles on a computer screen as quickly as possible.
The task was chosen because it involved participants in motor learning as they sought to modulate the force with which they gripped the dynamometer to move the cursor around the screen, the researchers explained.
This was then followed by 15 minutes of exercise or rest.
Participants were then asked to repeat an abridged version of this task, known as a handgrip task, at intervals of 30, 60, and 90 minutes after exercise or rest, while the researchers assessed their level of brain activity.
This task involved participants repeatedly gripping the dynamometer, for a few seconds, with a similar degree of force to that which was used to reach some of the target rectangles in the “pinch task.”
The final step in the study involved participants in both groups repeating the “pinch task” eight and then 24 hours after initially performing it, allowing the researchers to capture and compare brain activity and connectivity as the motor memories were consolidated.
The researchers discovered that those who had exercised were consistently able to repeat the “pinch task” connecting different areas of the brain more efficiently and with less brain activity than those who hadn’t exercised.
More importantly, they say, the reduction of brain activity in the exercise group was correlated with a better retention of the motor skill 24 hours after motor practice.
This suggests that even a short bout of intense exercise can create an optimal brain state during the consolidation of motor memory, which improves the retention of motor skills, the researchers said.
When they looked more specifically at what was going on, the researchers discovered that, after exercise, there was less brain activity, most likely because the neural connections both between and within the brain hemispheres had become more efficient.
“Because the neural activation in the brains of those who had exercised was much lower, the neural resources could then be put to other tasks,” said Dr. Fabien Dal Maso, the first author on the paper. “Exercise may help free up part of your brain to do other things.”
What the researchers found especially intriguing was that when they tested participants at the eight-hour mark, there was little difference between groups in skill retention.
In fact both groups were less able to retain the skills they had newly acquired, than they were at the 24-hour mark when the difference between the two groups was once more apparent, according to the researchers.
Source: McGill University
Photo: Participants in the study were divided into those who rested after a first take on a new motor skill and those who rode an exercise bike for 15-minutes. When asked to repeat the same task 24-hours later, those who had exercised used far fewer brain resources. Credit: McGill University.
Wood, J. (2018). Even Short Bouts of Exercise Can Hike Brain Connectivity, Efficiency. Psych Central. Retrieved on November 28, 2020, from https://psychcentral.com/news/2018/07/14/even-short-bouts-of-exercise-can-hike-brain-connectivity-efficiency/136980.html