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Do OTC Pain Meds Affect Thoughts and Emotions?

Do OTC Pain Meds Affect Thoughts and Emotions?

Provocative new research suggests over-the-counter pain medicine such as ibuprofen and acetaminophen may influence how people process information, experience hurt feelings, and react to emotionally evocative images.

University of California, Santa Barbara researchers Kyle Ratner, Amanda R. Kaczmarek, and Youngki Hong reviewed published literature suggesting that over-the-counter pain medicine do more than just relieve pain.

Their findings appear in the journal Policy Insights from the Behavioral and Brain Sciences.

The literature review suggests over-the-counter pain medicine may influence individuals’:

  • Sensitivity to emotionally painful experiences: Compared to those who took placebos, women who took a dose of ibuprofen reported less hurt feelings from emotionally painful experiences, such as being excluded from a game or writing about a time when they were betrayed. Men showed the opposite pattern.
  • Ability to empathize with the pain of others: Compared to those taking placebos, individuals who took a dose of acetaminophen were less emotionally distressed while reading about a person experiencing physical or emotional pain and felt less regard for the person.
  • Ability to process information: Compared to those who took placebos, individuals who took a dose of acetaminophen made more errors of omission in a game where they were asked, at various times, either to perform or to not perform a task.
  • Reactions to emotional objects: Individuals who took a dose of acetaminophen rated pleasant and unpleasant photographs less extremely than those who took placebos.
  • Discomfort from parting with possessions: When asked to set a selling price on an object they owned, individuals who took a dose of acetaminophen set prices that were cheaper than the prices set by individuals who took placebos.

If additional studies confirm the findings, regulatory officials would have to assess potential public health risks and benefits. “In many ways, the reviewed findings are alarming,” say the researchers.

“Consumers assume that when they take an over-the-counter pain medication, it will relieve their physical symptoms, but they do not anticipate broader psychological effects.”

Researchers explain that while the medicine(s) could have new potential for helping people deal with hurt feelings, more studies are needed to examine if the medications are truly effective for mental health.

Moreover, studies are needed to determine if the medications could have negative effects for people who take the meds with other pharmaceuticals or among people who are depressed and have difficulty feeling pleasure.

Source: Sage/EurekAlert

Do OTC Pain Meds Affect Thoughts and Emotions?

Rick Nauert PhD

Rick Nauert, PhDDr. Rick Nauert has over 25 years experience in clinical, administrative and academic healthcare. He is currently an associate professor for Rocky Mountain University of Health Professionals doctoral program in health promotion and wellness. Dr. Nauert began his career as a clinical physical therapist and served as a regional manager for a publicly traded multidisciplinary rehabilitation agency for 12 years. He has masters degrees in health-fitness management and healthcare administration and a doctoral degree from The University of Texas at Austin focused on health care informatics, health administration, health education and health policy. His research efforts included the area of telehealth with a specialty in disease management.

APA Reference
Nauert PhD, R. (2018). Do OTC Pain Meds Affect Thoughts and Emotions?. Psych Central. Retrieved on December 3, 2020, from
Scientifically Reviewed
Last updated: 8 Aug 2018 (Originally: 7 Feb 2018)
Last reviewed: By a member of our scientific advisory board on 8 Aug 2018
Published on Psych All rights reserved.