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Academics May Suffer If Kids Are Physically Abused or Punished

Academics May Suffer If Kids Are Physically Abused or Punished

New research suggests that physical abuse as well as non-abusive physical punishment may reduce a child’s academic performance, lessen school engagement, and lead to social isolation.

While corporal punishment and physical abuse have been linked with reduced cognitive development and academic achievement in children previously, the new study is one of the few that simultaneously examines abusive and non-abusive physical punishment as reported by both children and caregivers.

In the study, Penn State investigators discovered physical abuse is associated with a decrease in children’s cognitive performance. Investigators also discovered that non-abusive forms of physical punishment may result in less school commitment and increased peer isolation.

The effects of abuse and punishment can be far-ranging. Even if physical punishment does not result in serious physical injury, children may experience fear and distress, and this stress has been found to negatively impact brain structure, development, and overall well-being.

Drs. Sarah Font, assistant professor of sociology and Jamie Cage, assistant professor in Virginia Commonwealth University’s School of Social Work, found that children’s performances and engagement in the classroom are significantly influenced by their exposure to mild, harsh and abusive physical punishment in the home.

Their study was recently published in Child Abuse and Neglect.

“This punishment style is meant to inflict minor pain so the child will change their behavior to avoid future punishment, but it does not give children the opportunity to learn how to behave appropriately through explanation and reasoning,” stated Font.

In this study, over 650 children and their caregivers were examined in three areas of physical punishment: mild corporal punishment, harsh corporal punishment, and physical abuse.

The groups reported their use or experience with physical punishment and researchers then measured cognitive outcomes, school engagement, and peer isolation in the children.

The data was analyzed to determine trajectories between cognitive and academic performance and how initial and varying exposure to physical punishment and abuse influences them.

“We found that while all forms of physical punishment and abuse are associated with declines in school engagement, only initial exposure to physical abuse has a significant negative influence on cognitive performance, and only harsh corporal punishment notably increases peer isolation in children and was observed in both child and caregiver reports.

This suggests that preventing physical abuse could promote children’s cognitive performance, but it may not be enough to get children to be involved and well-adjusted in school,” said Font.

Considering that mild physical punishment can develop into physical abuse and that even these mild punishments have consequences on children’s cognitive and social school functioning, parent education on alternative forms of punishment may be one solution to prevent physical abuse.

Programs that reach parents during services that they regularly use may be one way to give them alternative punishment technique education.

This could be a medical professional informing parents during a child’s health visit or staff members of an Early Head Start program providing parent education during the child’s enrollment.

“Further research and efforts in these types of interventions needs to continue so we can learn more,” Font said.

Source: Penn State University

Academics May Suffer If Kids Are Physically Abused or Punished

Rick Nauert PhD

Rick Nauert, PhDDr. Rick Nauert has over 25 years experience in clinical, administrative and academic healthcare. He is currently an associate professor for Rocky Mountain University of Health Professionals doctoral program in health promotion and wellness. Dr. Nauert began his career as a clinical physical therapist and served as a regional manager for a publicly traded multidisciplinary rehabilitation agency for 12 years. He has masters degrees in health-fitness management and healthcare administration and a doctoral degree from The University of Texas at Austin focused on health care informatics, health administration, health education and health policy. His research efforts included the area of telehealth with a specialty in disease management.

APA Reference
Nauert PhD, R. (2018). Academics May Suffer If Kids Are Physically Abused or Punished. Psych Central. Retrieved on December 2, 2020, from
Scientifically Reviewed
Last updated: 8 Aug 2018 (Originally: 2 Oct 2017)
Last reviewed: By a member of our scientific advisory board on 8 Aug 2018
Published on Psych All rights reserved.