New research suggests a brain activity test that measures the frequency of certain brain waves can help to distinguish the wide range of autism spectrum disorders (ASD).
Initially, UCLA investigators discovered that children with autism have a tell-tale difference on brain tests compared with other children. Then the researchers found that the lower a child’s peak alpha frequency — a number reflecting the frequency of certain brain waves — the lower their non-verbal IQ was.
Investigators explain that this is the first study to highlight peak alpha frequency as a biomarker to not only differentiate children with autism from typically developing children, but also to detect the variability in cognitive function among children with autism.
Autism spectrum disorder affects an estimated one in 68 children in the United States, causing a wide range of symptoms.
Some individuals on the ASD spectrum have average or above-average reasoning, memory, attention, and language skills, others have intellectual disabilities.
Researchers have worked to understand the root of these cognitive differences in the brain and why autism spectrum disorder symptoms are so diverse.
Investigators used an electroencephalogram, or EEG, to detect electrical brain activity. The EEG test involves the placement of small electrodes on the scalp. It measures different aspects of brain activity including peak alpha frequency, which can be detected using a single electrode in as little as 40 seconds. Past research has linked peak alpha frequency to cognition in healthy individuals.
In the study, researchers performed EEGs on 97 children ages two to 11; 59 had diagnoses of autism spectrum disorder and 38 did not have the disorder. The EEGs were taken while the children were awake and relaxed in dark, quiet rooms. Investigators then correlated age, verbal IQ, non-verbal IQ, and peak alpha frequency.
The discovery that peak alpha frequency relates directly to non-verbal IQ in children with the disorder suggests a link between the brain’s functioning and the severity of the condition.
Moreover, it means that researchers may be able to use the test as a biomarker in the future, to help study whether an autism treatment is effective in restoring peak alpha frequency to normal levels, for instance.
More work is needed to understand whether peak alpha frequency can be used to predict the development of autism spectrum disorder in young children before symptoms emerge.