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Sexual Assault Can Also Traumatize Men

Sexual Assault Can Also Traumatize Men

A new study debunks the belief that sexism is only a female issue as investigators discovered male sexual assault can cause emotional trauma and depression.

Using a sample size of 11,860 adults in the United States (5,922 men and 5,938 women), obtained from the National Violence Against Women Survey’s database, researchers at Florida Atlantic University and Sam Houston State University reviewed the gender specific impact of sexual assault.

Sexual assault is unwanted sexual contact, including rape, and is a traumatizing event linked to numerous mental health consequences associated with negative outcomes such as depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, fear, anxiety, alcohol dependence, use of illicit substances, suicidal ideation, and attempted suicide.

While there is extensive research on the collateral consequences experienced by females, almost no research exists on how sexual violence affects adult, non-incarcerated males or how it affects them as compared to females.

In the study, the researchers sought to challenge a sociological theory that explains that men are more likely to respond to sexual assault with anger and by engaging in criminal activity, while women are more likely to respond with depression and sadness.

The General Strain Theory, used by criminologists and sociologists, explains delinquency and deviant behavior in terms of behavioral, emotional, and cognitive adaptations to negative life events (i.e., strain).

Results of the study are published in the journalĀ Women & Criminal Justice.

The aim of the study, led by Lisa M. Dario, Ph.D., assistant professor in the School of Criminology and Criminal Justice within FAU’s College for Design and Social Inquiry, was to prove how depression and sexual assault are both underreported as well as understudied in adult men.

Research examining male sexual victimization has predominantly focused on childhood trauma. Findings from this study will help to tackle the many gaps that exist, identify appropriate support programs for men, and ultimately remove the stigma and barriers that prevent them from disclosing as well as discussing their experience.

“When we began this study, we thought for sure that we would find that females who were sexually assaulted would exhibit higher depression scores than males who were sexually assaulted,” said Dario.

“I think this is probably because of antiquated ideas that men and women experience emotions differently. What we actually discovered, much to our surprise, is that sexual assault is traumatic regardless of gender.”

The researchers suspect that it is possible that men may even experience depression more than women because they don’t have the social outlets and support systems available to women and therefore may wind up internalizing their feelings and emotions.

What didn’t surprise Dario and her collaborator Eryn Nicole O’Neal, Ph.D., an assistant professor of criminal justice and criminology at Sam Houston State University, was that all victims of sexual assault have higher depression scores than individuals who have not been sexually assaulted in their lifetime.

In 1980, men made up between one to 10 percent of rape reports received in crisis centers, hospitals, and emergency rooms; in 1997, they represented between five and 10 percent of all reported rapes.

More recently, National Crime Victimization Survey results show that men make up about 38 percent of sexual assault and rape incidents reported, and those in the military are particularly vulnerable and more unlikely to report an assault.

“There is no room for ‘sexism’ in sexual assault research [by ignoring male victims] and we must bring attention to an issue that impacts men equally, especially if we know that their negative emotional responses are treatable,” said Dario.

“If left untreated, sexual assault victims may look for other outlets to process their emotions; untreated depression may lead to negative coping mechanisms, like drug use. We do know that people who experience strains, like sex assault, are more likely to use illicit drugs, and we certainly need to be mindful of halting an already nationwide epidemic of opioid and other drug misuse.”

Source: Florida Atlantic University/EurekAlert
 
Photo: The aim of the study, led by Lisa M. Dario, Ph.D., assistant professor in the School of Criminology and Criminal Justice within FAU’s College for Design and Social Inquiry, was to prove how depression and sexual assault are both underreported as well as understudied in adult men. Credit: Florida Atlantic University.

Sexual Assault Can Also Traumatize Men

Rick Nauert PhD

Rick Nauert, PhDDr. Rick Nauert has over 25 years experience in clinical, administrative and academic healthcare. He is currently an associate professor for Rocky Mountain University of Health Professionals doctoral program in health promotion and wellness. Dr. Nauert began his career as a clinical physical therapist and served as a regional manager for a publicly traded multidisciplinary rehabilitation agency for 12 years. He has masters degrees in health-fitness management and healthcare administration and a doctoral degree from The University of Texas at Austin focused on health care informatics, health administration, health education and health policy. His research efforts included the area of telehealth with a specialty in disease management.

APA Reference
Nauert PhD, R. (2017). Sexual Assault Can Also Traumatize Men. Psych Central. Retrieved on December 12, 2018, from https://psychcentral.com/news/2017/07/11/sexual-assault-can-also-traumatize-men/123083.html

 

Scientifically Reviewed
Last updated: 11 Jul 2017
Last reviewed: By John M. Grohol, Psy.D. on 11 Jul 2017
Published on PsychCentral.com. All rights reserved.