A new study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association contradicts prior research, finding that antidepressants used during early pregnancy does not increase the risk of children developing autism or attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.
The University of Indiana study found significant evidence for only a slight increase in risk for premature birth in the infants of mothers who used antidepressants during the first trimester of pregnancy.
“To our knowledge, this is one of the strongest studies to show that exposure to antidepressants during early pregnancy is not associated with autism, ADHD, or poor fetal growth when taking into account the factors that lead to medication use in the first place,” said study leader Dr. Brian D’Onofrio.
“Balancing the risks and benefits of using antidepressants during pregnancy is an extremely difficult decision that every woman should make in consultation with her doctor,” he said. “However, this study suggests use of these medications while pregnant may be safer than previously thought.”
Researchers called the study unique because its methodology included the review of an entire population rather than common techniques using smaller samples.
Researchers reported that after controlling for multiple other risk factors, they did not find any increased risk of autism, ADHD, or reduced fetal growth among exposed offspring. The risk for premature birth was about 1.3 times higher for exposed offspring compared to unexposed offspring.
The analysis, conducted in collaboration with researchers at Karolinska Institute in Sweden and Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, drew upon data on all live births in Sweden from 1996 to 2012.
It also incorporated data reporting the country’s antidepressant prescriptions in adults, autism and ADHD diagnoses in children, genetic relationships between parents and children, parents’ age and education levels, and other factors.
With over 1.5 million infants, the study comprises one of the largest and most comprehensive populations ever analyzed to understand the impact of antidepressant use during pregnancy.
The increased risk for premature birth was found after controlling for other factors that affect health, such as a mother’s age at childbearing, in siblings whose mothers used antidepressants during one pregnancy but not during another pregnancy.
“The ability to compare siblings who were differentially exposed to antidepressants in pregnancy is a major strength of this study,” D’Onofrio said.
“Most analyses rely upon statistical matching to control for differences in factors such as age, race, and socioeconomic status. But it’s difficult to know if you’ve made a perfect match because you can’t be certain you have all the relevant measures to control for these differences.”
When comparing unrelated children and controlling for related risk factors, the researchers found a slightly higher risk for all four conditions: 1.4 times higher odds for premature birth, 1.1 times higher odds for low fetal growth, and 1.6 times higher risk for autism and ADHD.
In an uncontrolled analysis — which did not take these factors into account — antidepressant use in early pregnancy was associated with 1.5 times higher odds for premature birth, 1.2 times higher odds for fetal growth, 2.0 times higher risk for autism, and 2.2 times increased risk for ADHD.
The majority of the antidepressants examined in the study — 82 percent — were selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, or SSRIs, the most common type of antidepressants. Commonly used SSRIs include fluoxetine (Prozac), sertraline (Zoloft), and citalopram (Celexa).
In addition to the use of these medications during early pregnancy, the study looked at concurrent antidepressant use in fathers, as well as mothers’ use of antidepressants before but not during pregnancy.
These uses were associated with increased risk for autism, ADHD, and poor fetal growth, providing evidence that family factors, such as genetics or environmental factors, influence these outcomes, as opposed to antidepressant use during pregnancy.
“The additional comparisons provide further evidence that other factors — not first-trimester exposure to antidepressants — explain why women who took these medications during early pregnancy were more likely to have offspring with these pregnancy and neurodevelopmental problems,” D’Onofrio said.
Source: University of Indiana