Women’s Exposure to Gang Violence Leads to PTSD

The violence that women in disadvantaged neighborhoods experience and witness can result in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and full diagnoses, according to a new study.

The Northwestern University study of a disadvantaged Chicago neighborhood also found that women with PTSD diagnosis or sub-threshold PTSD had significantly more severe depression symptoms than women in the study who didn’t report experiencing trauma.

Every woman who was recruited for the study had symptoms of depression, the researchers noted.

“There are many women who are affected by shooting and gang violence in these neighborhoods,” said first author Sunghyun Hong, a research assistant at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine. “These women are often overlooked. With this study, we were able to shine a light on this high prevalence of trauma exposure and PTSD diagnosis among the underserved population.”

The traumatic experiences reported in the study were often violent or sexual in nature. One woman disclosed having witnessed the fatal shooting of her son, and another woman reported seeing her father murdered in her home.

The neighborhood from which women in the study were recruited ranked seventh for property crime, 26th for quality of life crime, and 35th for violent crime among 77 Chicago neighborhoods.

According to the study’s findings, 36 percent of the women had PTSD or sub-threshold PTSD (substantial trauma symptoms that might not have met the full PTSD diagnostic criteria).

Those with PTSD had more severe depression symptoms than other women in the study who did not exhibit signs of PTSD, said principal investigator and senior author Dr.  Inger Burnett-Zeigler, a clinical psychologist and assistant professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences at Feinberg.

“Even if you don’t meet the full criteria for PTSD, you can have enough symptoms to impact your well-being,” Burnett-Zeigler said. “There is a substantial proportion of people who fall below the PTSD diagnosis line who might be getting lost in the cracks. It’s important for mental health providers to develop a greater awareness around this because untreated PTSD symptoms affect mental health, quality of life, and functioning.”

About 20 percent of all women who experience trauma develop PTSD, according to the researcher.

“But the prevalence of PTSD symptoms is particularly acute in impoverished neighborhoods,” Burnett-Zeigler said. “In the study’s sample, 71 percent of the women who experienced trauma had PTSD symptoms.”

“This wasn’t a sample we recruited based on having traumatic experiences, and yet so many women we recruited had experienced something traumatic,” she said. “That is really significant in terms of how prevalent of an issue this is in that vulnerable population.”

The study was published in the Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities.

Source: Northwestern University