Home » News » First Impressions Are Important — They Last
First Impressions Are Important -- They Last

First Impressions Are Important — They Last

The adage that “first impressions are the most lasting,” appears correct as new research finds that people tend to be influenced by another person’s initial appearance.

Cornell University researchers say that although people are often advised to “not judge a book by its cover,” people often to do just that.

Dr. Vivian Zayas, a professor of psychology at Cornell and her colleagues found that people continue to be influenced by another person’s appearance even after interacting with them face-to-face.

First impressions formed simply from looking at a photograph predicted how people felt and thought about the person after a live interaction that took place one month to six months later.

“Facial appearance colors how we feel about someone, and even how we think about who they are,” said Zayas, an expert in the cognitive and affective processes that regulate close relationships.

“These facial cues are very powerful in shaping interactions, even in the presence of other information.”

The researchers ran experiments in which 55 participants looked at photographs of four women who were smiling in one instance and had a neutral expression in another. For each photo, participants evaluated whether they would be friends with the woman, indicating likeability, and whether or not her personality was extroverted, agreeable, emotionally stable, conscientious, and open to new experiences.

Between one month and six months later, the study participants met one of the photographed women — not realizing they had rated her photograph previously.

In this meeting they played a trivia game for 10 minutes then were instructed to get to know each other as well as possible for another 10 minutes. After each interaction, the study participants again evaluated the person’s likeability and personality traits.

The researchers found a strong consistency between how the participants evaluated the person based on the photograph and on the live interaction.

If study participants thought a person in a photograph was likeable and had an agreeable, emotionally stable, open-minded, and conscientious personality, that impression carried through after the face-to-face meeting.

Conversely, participants who thought the person in the photograph was unlikeable and had a disagreeable, emotionally unstable, close-minded, and disagreeable personality kept that judgment after they met.

“What is remarkable is that despite differences in impressions, participants were interacting with the same person, but came away with drastically different impressions of her even after a 20-minute face-to-face interaction,” Zayas said.

Zayas has two explanations for the findings.

She believes a concept called behavioral confirmation, or self-fulfilling prophecy accounted for, at least in part, consistency in liking judgments. The study participants who had said they liked the person in the photograph tended to interact with them face to face in a friendlier, more engaged way, she said.

“They’re smiling a little bit more, they’re leaning forward a little bit more. Their nonverbal cues are warmer,” she said. “When someone is warmer, when someone is more engaged, people pick up on this. They respond in kind. And it’s reinforcing: The participant likes that person more.”

Regarding why participants showed consistency in judgments of personality, a halo effect could have come into play, she said. That is, participants who gave the photographed person a positive evaluation attributed other positive characteristics to them as well.

“We see an attractive person as also socially competent, and assume their marriages are stable and their kids are better off. We go way beyond that initial judgment and make a number of other positive attributions,” Zayas said.

In a related study, she and her colleagues found that people said they would revise their judgment of people in photographs if they had the chance to meet them in person, because they’d have more information on which to base their assessment.

“And people really think they would revise,” she said. “But in our study, people show a lot more consistency in their judgments, and little evidence of revision.”

The study appears in the journal Social Psychological and Personality Science.

Source: Cornell University

First Impressions Are Important — They Last

Rick Nauert PhD

Rick Nauert, PhDDr. Rick Nauert has over 25 years experience in clinical, administrative and academic healthcare. He is currently an associate professor for Rocky Mountain University of Health Professionals doctoral program in health promotion and wellness. Dr. Nauert began his career as a clinical physical therapist and served as a regional manager for a publicly traded multidisciplinary rehabilitation agency for 12 years. He has masters degrees in health-fitness management and healthcare administration and a doctoral degree from The University of Texas at Austin focused on health care informatics, health administration, health education and health policy. His research efforts included the area of telehealth with a specialty in disease management.

APA Reference
Nauert PhD, R. (2016). First Impressions Are Important — They Last. Psych Central. Retrieved on June 21, 2018, from https://psychcentral.com/news/2016/11/30/first-impressions-are-important-they-last/113218.html

 

Scientifically Reviewed
Last updated: 30 Nov 2016
Last reviewed: By John M. Grohol, Psy.D. on 30 Nov 2016
Published on PsychCentral.com. All rights reserved.