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Appetite Urges in Brain May Be Reversed in Anorexia & Bulimia

Appetite Urges in Brain May Be Reversed in Anorexia & Bulimia

Researchers have discovered neurological anomalies allow those with anorexia and bulimia nervosa to override the urge to eat.

In a new study, investigators at the University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus showed that normal patterns of appetite stimulation in the brain are effectively reversed in those with eating disorders.

Their paper appears in the journal Translational Psychiatry.

Researchers learned that in eating disorders, signals from other parts of the brain override the hypothalamus, the brain region that regulates appetite and motivation to eat.

“In the clinical world we call this `mind over matter,”’ said Guido Frank, M.D., lead author of the study and associate professor of psychiatry and neuroscience at the University of Colorado School of Medicine.

“Now we have physiological evidence to back up that idea.”

Frank, an expert on eating disorders, set out to discover the hierarchies of the brain that govern appetite and food intake. He wanted to understand the neurological reasons behind why some people eat when they were hungry and others do not.

Using brain scans, the researchers examined how 26 healthy women and 26 women with anorexia or bulimia nervosa reacted to tasting a sugary solution.

They discovered that those with eating disorders had widespread alterations in the structure of brain pathways governing taste-reward and appetite regulation. The alterations were found in the white matter, which coordinates communication between different parts of the brain.

There were also major differences in the role the hypothalamus played in each group.

Among those without an eating disorder, brain regions that drive eating took their cues from the hypothalamus. In the groups with an eating disorder, the pathways to the hypothalamus were significantly weaker and the direction of information went in the opposite direction.

As a result, their brain may be able to override the hypothalamus and fend off the signals to eat.

“The appetite region of the brain should drive you off your chair to get something to eat,” said Frank.

“But in patients with anorexia or bulimia nervosa that is not the case.” According to the study, humans are programmed at birth to like sweet tastes. But those with eating disorders begin to avoid eating sweets for fear of gaining weight.

“One could see such avoidance as a form of learned behavior and more specifically operant conditioning, with weight gain as the feared `punishment,”’ the study said.

This behavior could eventually alter the brain circuits governing appetite and food intake.

Researchers now suggest that being afraid to eat certain foods could impact the taste-reward processing mechanisms in the brain which could then reduce the influence of the hypothalamus.

“We now understand better on the biological level how those with an eating disorder may be able to override the drive to eat,” said Frank.

“Next we need to begin looking at children to see when all of this starts to come into play.”

Source: University of Colorado/EurekAlert

Appetite Urges in Brain May Be Reversed in Anorexia & Bulimia

Rick Nauert PhD

Rick Nauert, PhDDr. Rick Nauert has over 25 years experience in clinical, administrative and academic healthcare. He is currently an associate professor for Rocky Mountain University of Health Professionals doctoral program in health promotion and wellness. Dr. Nauert began his career as a clinical physical therapist and served as a regional manager for a publicly traded multidisciplinary rehabilitation agency for 12 years. He has masters degrees in health-fitness management and healthcare administration and a doctoral degree from The University of Texas at Austin focused on health care informatics, health administration, health education and health policy. His research efforts included the area of telehealth with a specialty in disease management.

APA Reference
Nauert PhD, R. (2016). Appetite Urges in Brain May Be Reversed in Anorexia & Bulimia. Psych Central. Retrieved on June 20, 2018, from https://psychcentral.com/news/2016/11/08/faulty-brain-wiring-influences-anorexia-and-bulimia/112237.html

 

Scientifically Reviewed
Last updated: 8 Nov 2016
Last reviewed: By John M. Grohol, Psy.D. on 8 Nov 2016
Published on PsychCentral.com. All rights reserved.