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Kids of Same- and Different-Sex Parents Fare Equally Well

Kids of Same- and Different-Sex Parents Fare Equally Well

Children raised by same-sex female parents show no difference in well-being when compared to children of different-sex parents, as long as the family is stable.

Researchers from the University of Amsterdam compared general health and emotional difficulties, as well as coping and learning behavior among children of same-sex and different-sex parents in similarly stable relationships.

“Our study of households with no divorces or other family transitions finds that spouse-partner and parent-child relationships are similar regardless of family structure,” said┬álead researchers Henry Bos, Ph.D., and Nanette Gartrell, M.D.

“These strong relationships are important contributors to good child outcomes, not whether the parents are same-sex or different-sex.”

The study appears in the Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, the official journal of the Society for Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics.

In the study, researchers identified 95 female same-sex parent households and 95 different-sex parent households, matched for parent and child characteristics.

The families were drawn from a very large, nationally representative study, the National Survey of Child Health. (Male same-sex couples were not included because of the small number of households meeting the study criteria.)

The current study focused on households with no history of family instability, discontinuity, or transitions; limited to parents who were raising their own children since birth, without divorce, separation, or adoption. This study methodology was used to minimize the impact of family disruption on child well-being.

The results showed no differences between the two groups in terms of spouse or partner relationships, parent-child relationships, or any of the child outcomes assessed. The only difference between the two groups of households was higher reported parenting stress among the same-sex couples.

A strong parent-child relationship made a difference in both groups. That is, more positive parent-child relationships were associated with higher levels of children’s general health and better coping and learning behaviors. Moreover, better spouse/partner and parent-child relationships were associated with lower levels of children’s emotional difficulties.

Same-sex parenting has become a political issue in America. As such, research is necessary to provide clarity on outcomes.

A large majority of studies have found no difference in outcomes for children raised by same-sex versus different-sex families. Most of these studies were based on convenience samples or fertility clinic recruitment.

In contrast, the current study was drawn from a population-based survey on children’s health approved by the National Center for Health Statistics of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The results show that, for children with stable and positive family relationships, outcomes are similarly good in both same-sex and different-sex parent families.

That’s despite the higher levels of parenting stress reported by same-sex parents, Bos and colleagues note. They call for further studies to assess the source of this stress, suggesting that the “cultural spotlight” on child outcomes in families with same-sex parents might be a contributing factor.

The findings highlight the need to “move beyond anti-LGBT politics,” according to a commentary by Nathaniel Frank, Ph.D., director of the What We Know Project at Columbia Law School.

Frank explains, “The study corroborates the ‘no differences’ conclusions that have been reached by at least 73 other scholarly studies.”

The new research is important in view of the U.S. Supreme Court decision resolving the status of legal same-sex marriage.

Dr. Frank concludes, “The scientific debate over the politics of gay parenting is over, and equal treatment has won.” He believes that future research should focus on meeting the health and well-being needs of the under-served LGBT population.

Source: Wolters Kluwer Health/EurekAlert

Kids of Same- and Different-Sex Parents Fare Equally Well

Rick Nauert PhD

Rick Nauert, PhDDr. Rick Nauert has over 25 years experience in clinical, administrative and academic healthcare. He is currently an associate professor for Rocky Mountain University of Health Professionals doctoral program in health promotion and wellness. Dr. Nauert began his career as a clinical physical therapist and served as a regional manager for a publicly traded multidisciplinary rehabilitation agency for 12 years. He has masters degrees in health-fitness management and healthcare administration and a doctoral degree from The University of Texas at Austin focused on health care informatics, health administration, health education and health policy. His research efforts included the area of telehealth with a specialty in disease management.

APA Reference
Nauert PhD, R. (2018). Kids of Same- and Different-Sex Parents Fare Equally Well. Psych Central. Retrieved on September 27, 2020, from
Scientifically Reviewed
Last updated: 8 Aug 2018 (Originally: 13 Apr 2016)
Last reviewed: By a member of our scientific advisory board on 8 Aug 2018
Published on Psych All rights reserved.