Emerging research discovers adolescents with severe alcohol and other drug (AOD) problems have a very low regard for other individuals. Their lack of sensitivity exceeds normal adolescent ego-centric behavior and can compromise proven rehabilitation methods.
In the study, developmental psychologist Maria Pagano Ph.D., found adolescents with severe alcohol and other drug (AOD) problems often express their low regard for others by higher rates of driving under the influence and having unprotected sex with a history of sexually transmitted disease.
Her findings also showed that they are less likely to volunteer their time helping others, an activity that she has been shown to help adult alcoholics stay sober.
The study was published in the Journal of Child and Adolescent Substance Abuse.
Pagano, an associate professor of psychiatry at Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, admits that the study was difficult to design as most adolescents are self-centered. But she was convinced that she would find addiction tied to a deficit in awareness of others above and beyond the ego-centric stage of adolescence. And she did.
She recruited 585 adolescents from Cuyahoga County high schools and the largest residential treatment facility in Northeastern Ohio, and matched them by age, gender, race, and residence zip code.
Researchers discovered there were two adolescents who described little or no drug or alcohol use (n=390) for every one young addict (n=195).
The study was designed to consider the relationship between the severity of the addiction and regard for others. She identified several behaviors to measure other-oriented awareness: driving under the influence, engaging in unprotected sex (even when they knew they had a sexually transmitted disease), and volunteerism.
Researchers discovered a dose-response relationship between substance use severity and other-regard. This means that the more severe the addiction, the more likely the young person was to endorse indices of low-regard for others. Pagnoa likens it to some of the features of autism.
Most youths (88 percent) did not use alcohol or drugs at the time of their last intercourse, which was unprotected among 55 percent of the sample. And, one out of five youths (26 percent) had a history of a driving under the influence, or DUI.
Investigators discovered kids who performed one risky behavior were more likely to engage in additional risky behaviors.
Specifically, the results showed a dose-response relationship between AOD severity and an increased likelihood of a DUI and having unprotected sex.
Youths with a STD history who did not use protection at the time of last sex were more likely to meet diagnostic criteria for substance dependency than youths with moderate use, whose risk was greater than youths who had never used alcohol or drugs.
Pagano believes that alcoholics and drug addicts may be hindered by a low awareness of how their actions impact others.
“The addict is like a tornado running through the lives of others,” said Pagano. Even when they are in recovery there is little indication that they understand how their actions impact those around them. “This is part of the illness,” she added.
Experts acknowledge that helping young people to get out of that self-centeredness by performing service to others helps them in the recovery process. In fact, service to others is a significant component of the 12-step Alcoholics Anonymous and Narcotics Anonymous programs.
Pagano had demonstrated in previous work with adult addicts that service cuts the risk of relapse in half and also cuts in half the risk of arrest.
“People must understand that the illness has a low awareness of others component that must be addressed,” she added. Her work suggests that addiction could be prevented through strengthening volunteerism.
Future research in this area will explore how helping others may increase alcoholics’ sensitivity to others and how their actions affect others. Plans are to follow the treated addicts over a one-year period monitoring their commitment to service. This will allow researchers to see whether their volunteerism helped reduce risky behaviors.
Source: Case Western Reserve University