New research has found that the blueberry — already labeled a “super fruit” for its power to potentially lower the risk of heart disease and cancer — also could be a weapon in the war against Alzheimer’s disease.
According to researchers, the fruit is loaded with healthful antioxidants, which could help prevent the devastating effects of this increasingly common form of dementia.
“Our new findings corroborate those of previous animal studies and preliminary human studies, adding further support to the notion that blueberries can have a real benefit in improving memory and cognitive function in some older adults,” said Robert Krikorian, Ph.D., leader of the research team, which presented its findings at the National Meeting & Exposition of the American Chemical Society.
He added that blueberries’ beneficial effects could be due to flavonoids called anthocyanins, which have been shown to improve animals’ cognition.
For the latest study, Krikorian and his colleagues at the University of Cincinnati Academic Health Center conducted two human studies to follow up on earlier clinical trials.
One study involved 47 adults aged 68 and older, who had mild cognitive impairment, a risk condition for Alzheimer’s disease. The researchers gave them either freeze-dried blueberry powder, which is equivalent to a cup of berries, or a placebo powder once a day for 16 weeks.
“There was improvement in cognitive performance and brain function in those who had the blueberry powder compared with those who took the placebo,” Krikorian reported. “The blueberry group demonstrated improved memory and improved access to words and concepts.”
The team also conducted functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), which showed increased brain activity in those who had the blueberry powder.
The second study included 94 people between the ages of 62 and 80, who were divided into four groups. The participants didn’t have objectively measured cognitive issues, but they subjectively felt their memories were declining. The groups received either the blueberry powder, fish oil, fish oil and powder, or a placebo.
“The results were not as robust as with the first study,” Krikorian reported. “Cognition was somewhat better for those with powder or fish oil separately, but there was little improvement with memory.”
Also, fMRI results were not as striking for those receiving blueberry powder. He says that the effect may have been smaller in this case because these participants had less severe issues when they entered the study.
Krikorian said the two studies indicate that blueberries may be more effective in treating patients with cognitive impairments, but may not show measurable benefit for those with minor memory issues or who have not yet developed cognitive problems.
In the future, the team plans to study a younger group of people, between the ages of 50 and 65, which would include people at risk of developing Alzheimer’s, such as those who are obese, have high blood pressure, or high cholesterol. This work could help the researchers determine if blueberries could help prevent the onset of Alzheimer’s symptoms, the researcher noted.