Toddlers often experience temper tantrums, misbehave, and display restlessness and inattention.
New research attempts to distinguish if the behaviors are the trappings of the typical toddler, or a sign of developmental delays or disorders? Likewise, are infant sleep irregularities red flags for later developmental difficulties?
In the study, Tel Aviv University researchers discovered a definite link between poor infant sleep and compromised attention and behavior at the toddler stage. Their work found that one-year-olds who experienced fragmented sleep were more likely to have difficulties concentrating and to exhibit behavioral problems at three and four years of age.
The study has been recently published in the journal Developmental Neuropsychology.
The research was led by Prof. Avi Sadeh of Tel Aviv University’s (TAU) School of Psychological Sciences and conducted by a team that included colleagues Yael Guri and Prof. Yair Bar-Haim; Dr. Gali De Marcas of the Gordon College of Education in Haifa; and Prof. Andrea Berger and Dr. Liat Tikotzky of Ben Gurion University of the Negev.
“Many parents feel that, after a night without enough sleep, their infants are not at their ‘best.’ But the real concern is whether infant sleep problems — i.e. fragmented sleep, frequent night wakings — indicate any future developmental problems,” said Prof. Sadeh.
“The fact that poor infant sleep predicts later attention and behavior irregularities has never been demonstrated before using objective measures.”
The team assessed the sleep patterns of infants at TAU’s Laboratory for Children’s Sleep Disorders, where Prof. Sadeh is director. The initial study included 87 one-year-olds and their parents. They revisited the lab when the infants were three to four years old.
According to the study, “Night-wakings of self-soothing infants go unnoticed by their parents. Therefore, objective infant sleep measures are required when assessing the role of sleep consolidation or sleep fragmentation and its potential impact on the developing child.”
To accomplish this, the researchers used wristwatch-like devices to objectively determine sleep patterns at the age of one, and in the follow-up visits they used a computerized attention test, the Spatial-Stroop task, to assess attentional executive control. They also referred to parental reports to determine signs of behavioral problems.
The results revealed significant predictive and concomitant correlations between infant sleep and toddler attention regulation and behavior problems. Researcher believe this suggests significant ties between sleep quality markers (sleep percentage and number of night wakings) at one year of age and attention and behavior regulation markers two to three years later.
However, researchers are unsure as to why this occurs.
“We don’t know what the underlying causes are for the lower sleep quality and later behavior regulation problems in these children,” said Prof. Sadeh.
“There may be genetic or environmental causes adversely affecting both the children’s sleep and their development in other domains. Our findings, however, support the importance of early diagnosis and treatment of sleep problems in infants and young children.
Early interventions for infant sleep problems, very effective in improving sleep quality, could potentially improve later attention and behavior regulation.”