Suicide Prevention Focusing on Screening, Fast-Acting Medications
A new national study hopes to determine if a new form of treatment can reduce depression symptoms, including suicidal ideation, quickly.
Experts say a new approach is necessary as on average, every 13 minutes of every day someone in the U.S. commits suicide. Many of those deaths are preventable.
“Depression is not normal. Effective medication and therapies are available to return people to normal psychological function and reduce their risk of suicide,” said Mark Pollack, M.D., chairperson of the Rush University Medical Center Department of Psychiatry in Chicago.
“This is a treatable illness. People shouldn’t have the false assumption that they have to live their life like this,” said John Zajecka, M.D., clinical director of the Woman’s Board Depression Treatment and Research Center at Rush University and Medical Center.
“Despite all the treatments we have today, suicide rates have increased. You would think we’d see a reduction,” said Zajecka, who is a member of the scientific advisory board of the American Foundation for Suicide Prevention (AFSP) and leader of the new study.
The suicide rate nationwide has been increasing gradually since 2000, with 41,149 suicides taking place in the U.S. in 2013 (the most recent year for which data is available), according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
The CDC reports that an estimated 1.3 million attempted suicide in 2013 and about 9.3 million adults had suicidal thoughts during that period.
The danger is even greater for high school-aged children: In 2013, eight percent of students in grades nine to 12 attempted suicide and 17 percent seriously considered doing it, according to the CDC.
Adolescents’ high risk of suicide is part of the reason why the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force issued a draft recommendation that children ages 12 to 18 be screened for major depressive disorder.
Pollack believes that better screening for suicidal thoughts among patients at all ages could help prevent suicides, noting that most people who kill themselves had interactions with some kind of medical professional in the months immediately before the suicide.
“There’s been a reluctance in medical and other settings to ask about suicides and risk factors like depression,” he said. There is a mistaken notion that asking an individual about suicide will “put the idea in their heads.”
“In fact, patients are often relieved to be able to talk about these distressing thoughts. Screening for suicidality can be a life-saving intervention.”
He also points out that barriers to access to mental health care remain, despite the passage of the Affordable Care Act and the Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act of 2008, which required that insurers’ mental health coverage be comparable to other medical coverage.
About one-third of people the U.S. find mental health care inaccessible, and more than four in 10 see cost as a barrier to treatment, according to a new study.
“We need to make sure people with mental health issues have ready access to care,” Pollack said.
Access to mental health services is critical, given that more than 90 percent of people who commit suicide are suffering from at least one psychiatric disorder such as depression, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorder, and abuse of alcohol and/or other drugs, according to the AFSP.
External stresses, such as job loss, financial strains, divorce, or bullying, add to the risk of suicide. “Environmental stressors like these in association with an underlying psychiatric disorder can be a particularly lethal combination,” Pollack says.
Military veterans are particularly at risk, with 22 killing themselves on average each day, said Pollack. “More veterans have died by suicide in the last decade than by military combat,” he observes.
People who have attempted suicide in the past are at greater risk to do it in the future. Individuals who have contemplated particular means for killing themselves — including those with ready access to firearms or those who have stockpiled pills — are at particular risk.
Further, those who talk about life not being worth living, being a burden, wishing they were dead, or plans to harm themselves are in danger of harming themselves. According to the AFSP, somewhere between 50 and 75 percent of people who commit suicide give warnings to someone beforehand.
“There’s a misconception that people who do it, don’t talk about it,” Pollack said. “Actually, the opposite is often true. A lot of people show up in medical offices in the weeks and months before they attempt to kill themselves, suggesting there are opportunities to intervene.”
If someone is expressing suicidal thoughts and feelings, refer the person for help immediately. “If somebody is actively suicidal and talking about killing themselves, it’s a medical emergency that required urgent intervention,” Pollack said. “I would get them into an acute setting — an emergency room or a medical or mental health provider’s office immediately.”
Investigators are working to develop novel interventions that may provide rapidly acting, effective treatment for individuals at the brink of killing themselves.
Zajecka is studying the use of eskatamine (a formulation of the anesthetic katamine) to treat depression and significant suicidal thoughts in people who either seek help in an emergency room, are referred for hospitalization by a health care provider, or are self-referred.
Studies show that ketamine has rapid antidepressant effects when it’s administered intravenously, but the time and effort needed for IV medications makes that method impractical for treating suicidal episodes. Instead, the study will evaluate eskatamine delivered in a nasal spray.
In a new study half the patients will receive eskatamine in four-day intervals, beginning with their hospitalization, and the other half will receive a placebo. (Both groups also will receive standard antidepression treatment.)
All the patients will undergo a psychiatric assessment an hour after receiving the drug or placebo to evaluate the degree of their suicidal feelings. The researchers will compare the results of the evaluations to see if the group receiving eskatamine shows greater improvement than the placebo group.
“One of the most important things we can do as doctors is provide hope and let people know there are treatments out there and never give up,” Zajecka said. “Hope is so important in this.”
Nauert PhD, R. (2018). Suicide Prevention Focusing on Screening, Fast-Acting Medications. Psych Central. Retrieved on September 25, 2020, from https://psychcentral.com/news/2015/09/28/suicide-prevention-includes-access-and-medications/92806.html