New Brain Model Improves Understanding of Autism
A new scholarly paper presents a novel explanation for how our brain is neurologically flexible when a neurodevelopmental disorder occurs.
Researchers from the University of Miami (UM) College of Arts & Science proposed a model for how the brain’s neural mechanisms create cognitive flexibility. Cognitive flexibility is the ability to shift our thoughts and adapt our behavior to the changing environment.
In other words, it’s one’s ability to disengage from a previous task and respond effectively to a new one. Researchers explain that it is a faculty that most of us take for granted, yet an essential skill to navigate life.
Investigators believe the new paradigm, presented in the journal Trends in Neurosciences, may be instrumental in understanding behavioral and neurological disorders, such as autism spectrum disorder.
“By understanding how the brain attempts to implement cognitive flexibility in a neurodevelopmental disorder like autism, we can better understand the nature of the disorder,” said Dina R. Dajani, Ph.D. student of psychology and first author of the study.
“The model will inform whether we should try to teach individuals with autism the strategies utilized by typically developing individuals, or instead improve upon already existing strategies of individuals with the disorder.”
For instance, knowing if there is a simple increase or decrease in connectivity between brain regions compared to healthy individuals, or whether those with autism use entirely different brain regions to implement cognitive flexibility will enable researchers to better design interventions to improve cognitive flexibility skills.
The more cognitive flexibility an individual has, the greater his or her chances of doing well in life. Previous studies have shown that greater cognitive flexibility relates to better reading abilities as a child, resilience as an adult, and quality of life in the advanced years.
“Our goal was to summarize and provide directions for future research on a topic that is relevant for understanding several prevalent developmental disorders,” said Lucina Q. Uddin, assistant professor of psychology in the UM College of Arts & Sciences, principal investigator of this study and co-author of the paper.
“We believe that a better understanding of the neural systems mediating this critical ability will help clinicians design more effect treatments to help individuals who have difficulty with flexible behaviors in daily life, particularly those with autism.”
In the paper, the researchers analyzed the existing literature and neuroimaging studies on cognitive flexibility and generated a hypothesis regarding the fundamental neural mechanisms of this important faculty.
The researchers suggest four components work together to implement cognitive flexibility: salience detection/attention (both achieve similar goals to direct attention to behaviorally relevant events), working memory, inhibition, and switching.
If their model is validated, it will provide a strong foundation for researchers to use as a basis in determining what may be wrong in individuals with impaired cognitive flexibility.
“Our concept is quite different from other conceptualizations of cognitive flexibility because we describe it as arising from four separate cognitive operations, whereas other researchers have described it as a manifestation of a single cognitive operation,” Dajani said. “This novel hypothesis may help our understanding of this complex ability.”
Source: University of Miami/EurekAlert
Nauert PhD, R. (2015). New Brain Model Improves Understanding of Autism. Psych Central. Retrieved on March 24, 2018, from https://psychcentral.com/news/2015/09/04/new-brain-model-improves-understanding-of-autism/91825.html