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Many Low-Income Schools Opt for Punishments Over Interventions

Low-income schools with high minority student populations tend to opt for severe punishments over medical or psychological interventions when dealing with behavioral problems, according to a new study by a sociologist at Pennsylvania State.

The findings show that schools and school districts with a greater percentage of black students had far higher rates of expulsions and suspensions, as well as higher rates of referrals to law enforcement and arrests.

School districts with higher populations of Hispanic students were less likely to seek criminal action against students, but were also less likely to consider medical treatments for behavioral problems.

“There’s been a real push toward school safety and there’s been a real push for schools to show they are being accountable,” said lead researcher David Ramey, an assistant professor of sociology and criminology.

“But, any zero-tolerance policy or mandatory top-down solutions might be undermining what would be otherwise good efforts at discipline, and not establishing an environment based around all the options available.”

These schools also have lower enrollment in government programs designed to end discrimination against students with disabilities, such as Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA).

The way schools are governed may influence whether students are punished or referred to medical help.

“Schools in high disadvantaged districts tend to be centralized, so all the schools in that district tend to develop the same practices,” Ramey said. “Schools that are in less disadvantaged districts tend to have more autonomy.”

A disadvantaged district is defined as one with low high-school graduation rates, high unemployment, more single mother-headed households, low median income, and a high percentage of adults employed in low-paid sales and retail jobs.

One reason that school officials have adopted zero-tolerance policies, such as immediate suspensions and expulsions, is the parental reaction to the increased media attention on school shootings and violence.

“In the late ’90s crime declined massively, but, media coverage of crime did increase in scope,” said Ramey. “We started seeing reports of school shootings and terrorism and that created a push to create the perception of safe schools, which included police in the schools and metal detectors at the doorway.”

The research builds on previous studies that investigated how educators assessed the behavior of individual students based on race.

“The bulk of my earlier research looked at how, for the same minor levels of misbehaviors — for example, classroom disruptions, talking back — white kids tend to get viewed as having ADHD, or having some sort of behavioral problem, while black kids are viewed as being unruly and unwilling to learn,” said Ramey.

The findings are published in the journal Sociology of Education.

Source: Pennsylvania State


Many Low-Income Schools Opt for Punishments Over Interventions

Traci Pedersen

Traci Pedersen is a professional writer with over a decade of experience. Her work consists of writing for both print and online publishers in a variety of genres including science chapter books, college and career articles, and elementary school curriculum.

APA Reference
Pedersen, T. (2018). Many Low-Income Schools Opt for Punishments Over Interventions. Psych Central. Retrieved on September 28, 2020, from
Scientifically Reviewed
Last updated: 8 Aug 2018 (Originally: 24 Jul 2015)
Last reviewed: By a member of our scientific advisory board on 8 Aug 2018
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