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Progress in Reducing Anxiety Linked to Smoking Cessation

Study IDs Brain Area Tied to Nicotine Withdrawal Anxiety

Anxiety associated with smoking cessation is a common side effect of nicotine withdrawal. A new study may offer smokers a promising breakthrough as researchers have identified the brain circuits responsible for the anxiety.

“We identified a novel circuit in the brain that becomes active during nicotine withdrawal, specifically increasing anxiety,” said principal investigator Andrew Tapper, Ph.D. , associate professor of psychiatry at the University of Massachusetts Medical School (UMMS).

“Increased anxiety is a prominent nicotine withdrawal symptom that contributes to relapse in smokers attempting to quit.”

The study yielded several discoveries about interconnected brain mechanisms that induce anxiety during nicotine withdrawal, and possible ways to derail these mechanisms in order to treat, or even prevent the especially troublesome symptom.

Experiments leading to the multiple, related findings were conducted over several years by the laboratories at UMMS and The Scripps Research Institute of La Jolla, California.

The study is published online by Nature Communications.

Researchers believe the study’s main finding is that a brain region called the interpeduncular nucleus is activated and appears to cause anxiety during nicotine withdrawal. Apparently, the anxiety linked to withdrawal occurs in this distinct subregion of the brain, and not the area where physical nicotine withdrawal symptoms such as headaches, nausea, and insomnia originate.

This form of anxiety strongly affects mood and often blocks smokers’ attempts to quit. The newly discovered sub region offers a distinct target for dampening these affective symptoms of nicotine withdrawal.

Also newly identified is the fact that input from neurons in two other brain regions converge onto the interpeduncular nucleus to stimulate anxiety-provoking neurons. Even areas of the brain traditionally associated with the rewarding or pleasurable effects of abused drugs, activate neuron receptors that foster anxiety. Also surprising to researchers is that other neurons release glutamate, the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain.

Both of these inputs are important and we could alleviate anxiety during nicotine withdrawal by dampening the activity at either level, said Tapper.

Investigators were able to alleviate anxiety in mice by quieting the activity of those activated neurons, suggesting the same might be possible for humans.

“There are already drugs that block the receptor that contributes to activation of these anxiety-inducing neurons,” Tapper noted. “These receptors have previously been linked to anxiety and depression, so our findings may also have implications for anxiety disorders in general.”

Next steps for this productive research collaboration will be expanding the scope of scientists’ understanding of the interactions between anxiety, stress, reward, and withdrawal from addictive substances.

“We’re now exploring whether the circuitry that we identified is involved in stress-induced anxiety in general, or specific to nicotine withdrawal-induced anxiety,” Tapper said.

“We’re also exploring if this circuitry is engaged with other drugs of abuse.”

Source: University of Massachusetts Medical School/EurekAlert!

Study IDs Brain Area Tied to Nicotine Withdrawal Anxiety

Rick Nauert PhD

Rick Nauert, PhDDr. Rick Nauert has over 25 years experience in clinical, administrative and academic healthcare. He is currently an associate professor for Rocky Mountain University of Health Professionals doctoral program in health promotion and wellness. Dr. Nauert began his career as a clinical physical therapist and served as a regional manager for a publicly traded multidisciplinary rehabilitation agency for 12 years. He has masters degrees in health-fitness management and healthcare administration and a doctoral degree from The University of Texas at Austin focused on health care informatics, health administration, health education and health policy. His research efforts included the area of telehealth with a specialty in disease management.

APA Reference
Nauert PhD, R. (2015). Study IDs Brain Area Tied to Nicotine Withdrawal Anxiety. Psych Central. Retrieved on August 14, 2018, from https://psychcentral.com/news/2015/04/23/progress-in-reducing-anxiety-linked-to-smoking-cessation/83819.html

 

Scientifically Reviewed
Last updated: 6 Oct 2015
Last reviewed: By John M. Grohol, Psy.D. on 6 Oct 2015
Published on PsychCentral.com. All rights reserved.