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Backup System In Brain Helps Compensate for Developmental Issues

Backup System In Brain Helps Compensate for Developmental Issues

New research suggests our brain can compensate for a variety of neurodevelopmental issues by relying on a system in the brain known as declarative memory.

Researchers from Georgetown University Medical Center propose that individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, Tourette syndrome, dyslexia, and specific language impairment (SLI) use declarative memory to help them overcome behavioral issues.

Investigators say this hypothesis is based on decades of research. Research findings are published in online and will be in a forthcoming issue of the journal Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews.

Researchers believe the compensatory mechanism allows individuals with autism to learn scripts for navigating social situations.

Further, the system helps people with obsessive-compulsive disorder or Tourette syndrome to control tics and compulsions; and provides strategies to overcome reading and language difficulties in those diagnosed with dyslexia, autism, or other developmental disorders of language.

“There are multiple learning and memory systems in the brain, but declarative memory is the superstar,” says Michael Ullman, Ph.D., professor of neuroscience at Georgetown and director of the Brain and Language Laboratory.

He explains that declarative memory can learn explicitly (consciously) as well as implicitly (non-consciously).

“It is extremely flexible, in that it can learn just about anything. Therefore it can learn all kinds of compensatory strategies, and can even take over for impaired systems,” says Ullman.

“Nevertheless, in most circumstances, declarative memory won’t do as good a job as these systems normally do, which is an important reason why individuals with the disorders generally still have noticeable problems despite the compensation,” he adds.

Knowing that individuals with these disorders can rely on declarative memory leads to insights on how to improve diagnosis and treatment of these conditions.

“It could improve treatment in two ways,” Ullman says. “First, designing treatments that rely on declarative memory, or that improve learning in this system, could enhance compensation.”

Conversely, treatments that are designed to avoid compensation by declarative memory may strengthen the dysfunctional systems.

Ullman says compensation by declarative memory may also help explain an observation that has long puzzled scientists — the fact that boys are diagnosed with these disorders more frequently than girls.

“Studies suggest that girls and women are better than boys and men, on average, in their use of declarative memory. Therefore females are likely to compensate more successfully than males, even to the point of compensating themselves out of diagnosis more often than males,” Ullman says.

Declarative memory may also compensate for dysfunctions in other disorders, he adds, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and even adult-onset disorders such as aphasia or Parkinson’s disease.

The hypothesis may thus have powerful clinical and other implications for a wide variety of disorders, Ullman says.

Source: Georgetown University Medical Center

Backup System In Brain Helps Compensate for Developmental Issues

Rick Nauert PhD

Rick Nauert, PhDDr. Rick Nauert has over 25 years experience in clinical, administrative and academic healthcare. He is currently an associate professor for Rocky Mountain University of Health Professionals doctoral program in health promotion and wellness. Dr. Nauert began his career as a clinical physical therapist and served as a regional manager for a publicly traded multidisciplinary rehabilitation agency for 12 years. He has masters degrees in health-fitness management and healthcare administration and a doctoral degree from The University of Texas at Austin focused on health care informatics, health administration, health education and health policy. His research efforts included the area of telehealth with a specialty in disease management.

APA Reference
Nauert PhD, R. (2015). Backup System In Brain Helps Compensate for Developmental Issues. Psych Central. Retrieved on June 20, 2018, from https://psychcentral.com/news/2015/02/13/backup-system-in-brain-helps-compensate-for-developmental-issues/81209.html

 

Scientifically Reviewed
Last updated: 6 Oct 2015
Last reviewed: By John M. Grohol, Psy.D. on 6 Oct 2015
Published on PsychCentral.com. All rights reserved.