Home » News » New Workplace Values Women Leaders

New Workplace Values Women Leaders

New Workplace Values Women LeadersSociety is changing and so too is the perception of women in the workforce. A new review of the literature suggest women leaders are rated as highly as men — and sometimes higher.

Experts say the finding conveys society’s changing gender roles and the need for a different management style in today’s globalized workplace.

“When all leadership contexts are considered, men and women do not differ in perceived leadership effectiveness,” said lead researcher Samantha C. Paustian-Underdahl, Ph.D., of Florida International University.

“As more women have entered into and succeeded in leadership positions, it is likely that people’s stereotypes associating leadership with masculinity have been dissolving slowly over time.”

While men tend to rate themselves as significantly more effective than women rate themselves, when ratings by others were examined, women came out ahead on perceptions of effectiveness, according to the study, published in Journal of Applied Psychology.

Paustian-Underdahl and her colleagues expanded on “role congruity theory,” which postulates that there is greater prejudice toward women as leaders because the stereotypical woman isn’t seen as possessing leadership qualities.

“Women are typically described and expected to be more communal, relations-oriented, and nurturing than men, whereas men are believed and expected to be more controlling, assertive, and independent than women,” said the researchers.

However, as organizations have become fast-paced, globalized environments, some organizational scholars have proposed that a more feminine style of leadership is needed to emphasize the participative and open communication needed for success.

The researchers analyzed 99 data sets from 58 journal publications, 30 unpublished dissertations or theses, five books and six other sources (e.g., white papers, unpublished data). Sample sizes ranged from 10 to 60,470 leaders.

The mean sample size was 1,011 and the average age of leaders (across the 40 samples in which age was reported) was 39. The studies were published between 1962 and 2011. Eighty-six percent of the samples reported data from studies conducted in the United States or Canada.

When looking only at ratings submitted by others (as opposed to self-ratings), women were seen as more effective leaders than men in middle management, business, and education organizations, according to the study.

Additionally, women were seen as more effective when they held senior-level management positions.

The researchers theorize that some of this effect could be due to a “double standard of competence,” meaning some people presume that women leaders have to be extra-competent to get into top positions.

“These findings are surprising given that men on average continue to be paid more and advance into higher managerial levels than women,” said Paustian-Underdahl.

“Future research needs to examine why women are seen as equally (or more) effective leaders than men, yet are not being rewarded in the same ways.”

Source: American Psychological Association

New Workplace Values Women Leaders

Rick Nauert PhD

Rick Nauert, PhDDr. Rick Nauert has over 25 years experience in clinical, administrative and academic healthcare. He is currently an associate professor for Rocky Mountain University of Health Professionals doctoral program in health promotion and wellness. Dr. Nauert began his career as a clinical physical therapist and served as a regional manager for a publicly traded multidisciplinary rehabilitation agency for 12 years. He has masters degrees in health-fitness management and healthcare administration and a doctoral degree from The University of Texas at Austin focused on health care informatics, health administration, health education and health policy. His research efforts included the area of telehealth with a specialty in disease management.

APA Reference
Nauert PhD, R. (2018). New Workplace Values Women Leaders. Psych Central. Retrieved on October 28, 2020, from
Scientifically Reviewed
Last updated: 8 Aug 2018 (Originally: 1 May 2014)
Last reviewed: By a member of our scientific advisory board on 8 Aug 2018
Published on Psych All rights reserved.