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High Functioning Autistic Kids May Outgrow Some Deficits

High Functioning Autistic Kids May Outgrow Some DeficitsEncouraging new research finds that some children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can outgrow a critical social communication disability.

Younger children with ASD have trouble integrating the auditory and visual cues associated with speech, but the researchers at Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University found that the problem can clear up in adolescence.

The research study may be found in the online edition of the journal Cerebral Cortex.

“This is an extremely hopeful finding,” said lead author John Foxe, Ph.D., “It suggests that the neurophysiological circuits for speech in these children aren’t fundamentally broken and that we might be able to do something to help them recover sooner.”

According to Foxe, the ability to integrate “heard” and “seen” speech signals is crucial to effective communication. “Children who don’t appropriately develop this capacity have trouble navigating educational and social settings,” he said.

Previous studies by Foxe and his colleagues demonstrated that children with ASD integrate multisensory information such as sound, touch and vision differently from typically developing children.

Among typically developing children, multisensory integration (MSI) abilities were known to continue improving late into childhood. The current study looked at whether one aspect of MSI — integrating audio and visual speech signals — continues to develop in high-functioning children with ASD as well.

In the study, 222 children ages 5 to 17, including both typically developing children and high-functioning children with ASD, were tested for how well they could understand speech with increasing levels of background noise.

In one test, the researchers played audio recordings of simple words. In a second test, the researchers played a video of the speaker articulating the words, but no audio. A third test presented the children with both the audio and video recordings.

The test mimics the so-called “cocktail party” effect: a noisy environment with many different people talking. In such settings, people naturally rely on both auditory and facial clues to understand what another person is saying.

“You get a surprisingly big boost out of lip-reading, compared with hearing alone,” said Foxe. “It’s an integrative process.”

In the first test (audio alone), the children with ASD performed almost as well as typically developing children across all age groups and all background noise levels.

In the second test (video alone), the children with ASD performed significantly worse than the typically developing children across all age groups and all background noise levels.

“But the typically developing children didn’t perform very well, either,” said Foxe. “Most people are fairly terrible at lip-reading.”

In the third test (audio and video), the younger children with ASD, ages 6 to 12, performed much worse than the typically developing children of the same age, particularly at higher levels of background noise. However, among the older children, there was no difference in performance between the typically developing and children with ASD.

“In adolescence, something amazing happens and the kids with ASD begin to perform like the typically developing kids,” said Foxe. “At this point, we can’t explain why. It may be a function of a physiological change in their brain or of interventions they’ve received, or both. That is something we need to explore.”

Despite the findings, researchers acknowledge that future studies could be significantly improved. “Instead of doing a cross-sectional study like this, where we tested children at various ages, we would prefer to do a longitudinal study that would involve the same kids who’d be followed over the years from childhood through adolescence,” Foxe said.

“We also need to find a way to study what is happening with low- and mid-functioning children with ASD. They are much less tolerant of testing and thus harder to study.”

According to the researchers, the work highlights the potential to develop more effective therapies to help ASD children by integrating audio and visual speech signals.

Source: Albert Einstein College of Medicine

High Functioning Autistic Kids May Outgrow Some Deficits

Rick Nauert PhD

Rick Nauert, PhDDr. Rick Nauert has over 25 years experience in clinical, administrative and academic healthcare. He is currently an associate professor for Rocky Mountain University of Health Professionals doctoral program in health promotion and wellness. Dr. Nauert began his career as a clinical physical therapist and served as a regional manager for a publicly traded multidisciplinary rehabilitation agency for 12 years. He has masters degrees in health-fitness management and healthcare administration and a doctoral degree from The University of Texas at Austin focused on health care informatics, health administration, health education and health policy. His research efforts included the area of telehealth with a specialty in disease management.

APA Reference
Nauert PhD, R. (2015). High Functioning Autistic Kids May Outgrow Some Deficits. Psych Central. Retrieved on May 24, 2018, from https://psychcentral.com/news/2013/08/29/high-functioning-autistic-kids-may-outgrow-some-deficits/58995.html

 

Scientifically Reviewed
Last updated: 6 Oct 2015
Last reviewed: By John M. Grohol, Psy.D. on 6 Oct 2015
Published on PsychCentral.com. All rights reserved.