Moms and dads can take heart; new research suggest adolescence angst is merely a normal biological program of reorientation.
As parents know, adolescence is often a turbulent period when children consider their identity and social status. Research now suggests that during this transition period a specific region of the brain shows increased activity.
In a study of 27 neurologically typical children who underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at ages 10 and 13, activity in the brain’s ventromedial prefrontal cortex increased dramatically when the subjects responded to questions about how they view themselves.
Researchers say the findings, published in the Journal of Neuroscience, confirm previous discoveries that specific brain networks support self-evaluations in the growing brain. Even more important is the evidence that basic biology may well drive some of these changes, said Dr. Jennifer H. Pfeifer, professor of psychology at the University of Oregon.
“This is a longitudinal fMRI study, which is still relatively uncommon,” Pfeifer said. “It suggests a link between neural responses during self-evaluative processing in the social domain, and pubertal development. This provides a rare piece of empirical evidence in humans, rather than animal models, that supports the common theory that adolescents are biologically driven to go through a social reorientation.”
Participants were scanned for about seven minutes at each visit. They responded to a series of attributes tied to social or academic domains — social ones such as “I am popular” or “I wish I had more friends” and academic ones such as “I like to read just for fun” or “Writing is so boring.”
Social and academic evaluations were made about both the self and a familiar fictional character, Harry Potter.
In previous research, Pfeifer had found that a more different region of the medial prefrontal cortex was more responsive in 10-year-old children during self-evaluations, when they were compared to adults.
The new study, she said, provides a more detailed picture of how the brain supports self-development by looking at change within individuals.
The fMRI analyses found it was primarily the social self-evaluations that triggered significant increases over time in blood-oxygen levels, which fMRI detects, in the ventral medial prefrontal cortex.
Additionally, these increases were strongest in children who experienced the most pubertal development over the three-year study period, for both girls and boys.
Increases in blood-oxygen levels during academic self-evaluations were negligible. Whole-brain analyses found no other areas of the brain had significant increases or decreases in activity related to pubertal development.
Thus, brain changes were principally centered around social orientations.
“Increased responses in this one region of the brain from age 10 to 13 were very evident in social self-evaluations, but not academic ones. This pattern is consistent with the enormous importance that most children entering adolescence place on their peer relationships and social status, compared to the relatively diminished value often associated with academics during this transition.”
In youth with autism spectrum disorders, this specialized brain response in ventral medial prefrontal cortex is missing.
In fact, the absence of this typical effect, Pfeifer said, might be related to the challenges these individuals often face in both self-understanding and social relations.
Source: University of Oregon