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Rodent Model Suggests Stress Hormones Can Protect from PTSD

Researchers have yet to fully understand the biological basis of post-traumatic stress disorder. Now, new research investigates the counterintuitive role of stress hormones as a protective factor in PTSD.

Stress hormones include the group of hormones call glucocorticoids and include cortisol. The hormones are considered stress hormones because their levels increase following stress.

Over the past three decades, scientists have learned that the release of cortisol prepared the body to cope with the physical demands of stress.

Researchers have also linked high levels of cortisol to depression and other stress-related disorders, giving rise to the hypothesis that high levels of cortisol on a long-term basis may impair the psychological capacity to cope with stress.

This theory has led to using drugs such as mifepristone as a treatment for depression by blocking glucocorticoid activity.

However, emerging research suggests that, in animal models and in humans, elevating glucocorticoid levels may actually reduce the development of posttraumatic stress disorder or PTSD.

A new study confirmed this hypothesis as Rajnish Rao and colleagues discovered that elevated levels of glucocorticoids at the time of acute stress offers protection against anxiety-like behavior and the delayed enhancing effect of stress.

The study is found in the journal Biological Psychiatry.

“It seems, increasingly, that the ‘trauma’ in posttraumatic stress disorder is the impact of stress on brain structure and function,” commented Dr. John Krystal, Editor of Biological Psychiatry.

“The study by Rao and colleagues provides evidence that glucocorticoids may have protective effects in their animal model that prevent from these changes in synaptic connectivity, potentially shedding light on protective effects of glucocorticoids described in relation to PTSD.”

Senior author Sumantra Chattarji, Ph.D., explained the reasoning behind their work: “First, this work was inspired by a puzzle — counterintuitive clinical reports — that individuals having lower levels of cortisol are more susceptible to developing PTSD and that cortisol treatment in turn reduces the cardinal symptoms of PTSD.

“Second, using a rodent model of acute stress, we were not only able to capture the essence of these clinical reports, but also identify a possible cellular mechanism in the amygdala, the emotional hub of the brain.”

Experts say that the lab results are consistent with clinical reports on the protective effects of glucocorticoids against the development of PTSD symptoms triggered by traumatic stress.

“With the increasing costs and suffering associated with PTSD victims, it is our hope that basic research of the kind reported in this study will help in developing new therapeutic strategies against this debilitating disorder,” concluded Chattarji.

Source: Elsevier

Rodent Model Suggests Stress Hormones Can Protect from PTSD

Rick Nauert PhD

Rick Nauert, PhDDr. Rick Nauert has over 25 years experience in clinical, administrative and academic healthcare. He is currently an associate professor for Rocky Mountain University of Health Professionals doctoral program in health promotion and wellness. Dr. Nauert began his career as a clinical physical therapist and served as a regional manager for a publicly traded multidisciplinary rehabilitation agency for 12 years. He has masters degrees in health-fitness management and healthcare administration and a doctoral degree from The University of Texas at Austin focused on health care informatics, health administration, health education and health policy. His research efforts included the area of telehealth with a specialty in disease management.

APA Reference
Nauert PhD, R. (2015). Rodent Model Suggests Stress Hormones Can Protect from PTSD. Psych Central. Retrieved on July 19, 2018, from https://psychcentral.com/news/2012/09/13/rodent-model-suggests-stress-hormones-can-protect-from-ptsd/44561.html

 

Scientifically Reviewed
Last updated: 6 Oct 2015
Last reviewed: By John M. Grohol, Psy.D. on 6 Oct 2015
Published on PsychCentral.com. All rights reserved.