A new study uses imaging technology to show how the brain reacts to environmental cues to ensure maximal productivity.
Specifically, University of California – Davis researchers studied how the brain reconfigures its connections to minimize distractions and take best advantage of our knowledge of situations.
“In order to behave efficiently, you want to process relevant sensory information as fast as possible, but relevance is determined by your current situation,” said researcher Joy Geng, Ph.D.
For example, a flashing road sign alerts us to traffic merging ahead; or a startled animal might cue you to look out for a hidden predator.
When concentrating on a specific task, it’s helpful to reconfigure brain networks so that task-relevant information is processed most efficiently and external distractions are reduced, Geng found.
Researchers used functional magnetic resonance imaging to study brain activity in volunteers carrying out a simple test. They compared their results to mathematical models to infer connectivity between different areas of the brain.
Study participants were asked to to look for a letter “T” in a box and indicate which way it faced by pressing a button. They were also presented with a “distractor”: another letter T in a box, but rotated 90 degrees. The distractor was either similar in appearance to the target, or brightened to be more attention-getting.
Investigators discovered subjects did better in trials with an “attention-getting” distractor than a less obvious one, and lit up specific areas of the brain accordingly.
Researchers believe the new study shows that the brain doesn’t always “ramp up” to deal with the situation at hand.
Instead, it changes how traffic moves through the existing hard-wired network — rather like changing water flow through a network of pipes or information flow over a computer network — in order to maximize efficiency.
The study is found in the Journal of Neuroscience.
Source: UC Davis