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Recurrent Depression Linked to Poor Resiliency, Smoking

Repeat Bouts of Depression Linked to Poor Resiliency, SmokingA new Canadian study discovers that previous depression, daily smoking and a lack of control over life circumstances are risk factors for repeat episodes of depression.

Depression is a common disorder and can be associated with weight and dietary control, pain and inattention to other health issues. According to the authors, about 65 percent of people with depression have repeat episodes.

In the study, researchers studied 585 adults from Statistics Canada’s National Population Health Survey who had suffered depression in 2000/01.

Of the patients, 65 percent were women with an average age of 38.5 years. Interestingly, 82 percent of the depressed individuals were in the middle- to high-income bracket.

More than half the patients had one or more episodes of depression in the following six years.

The researchers found that age, sex and income were not associated with future depressive episodes but that daily smoking and difficulty mastering life circumstances were associated with long-term depression.

Mastery is the sense that people have control over their lives and their circumstances. In this study, high levels of mastery appeared to be protective against further depression.

“History of depression is a well-known clinical indicator of future depressive episodes; however, smoking and mastery are more novel prognostic factors that are not well accounted for in current clinical practice,” said lead researcher Ian Colman, Ph.D.

“Future research should evaluate the benefits of including smoking cessation and mastery in existing clinical guidelines for the treatment of depression.”

Source: Canadian Medical Association Journal

Recurrent Depression Linked to Poor Resiliency, Smoking

Rick Nauert PhD

Rick Nauert, PhDDr. Rick Nauert has over 25 years experience in clinical, administrative and academic healthcare. He is currently an associate professor for Rocky Mountain University of Health Professionals doctoral program in health promotion and wellness. Dr. Nauert began his career as a clinical physical therapist and served as a regional manager for a publicly traded multidisciplinary rehabilitation agency for 12 years. He has masters degrees in health-fitness management and healthcare administration and a doctoral degree from The University of Texas at Austin focused on health care informatics, health administration, health education and health policy. His research efforts included the area of telehealth with a specialty in disease management.

APA Reference
Nauert PhD, R. (2018). Recurrent Depression Linked to Poor Resiliency, Smoking. Psych Central. Retrieved on January 23, 2019, from
Scientifically Reviewed
Last updated: 8 Aug 2018
Last reviewed: By a member of our scientific advisory board on 8 Aug 2018
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