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Brain Scans May Predict Schizophrenia

A new study suggests brain scans could be used to predict the onset of schizophrenia in young people with a family history of the disease.

University of Edinburgh researchers discovered the brains of people who later develop schizophrenia shrink at an accelerated rate before they first become ill.

Schizophrenia is a condition characterized by delusions and hallucinations that affects 1 in every 100 people – it is associated with a reduction in brain tissue but the timing of these changes has, until now, been unclear.

The study examined people at high risk of schizophrenia who had two close relatives with the disorder and were between 16 and 25 at the beginning of the study.

This is the first time that such changes in brain size have been found in people at high risk of schizophrenia before they develop any symptoms. Unlike previous studies, these changes cannot be due to medication as all of the people in the study were un-medicated when they took part.

In healthy people, the brain begins to slowly shrink from early adulthood onwards.

It is known that accelerated brain shrinkage occurs in people with bipolar disorder (or manic-depression) and schizophrenia, but until now it was not known whether these changes occurred before people became unwell.

Researchers say that scans could be used to identify shrinkage of the brain in people at high risk of schizophrenia and may help doctors to diagnose the condition and start treatment at an earlier stage or even before illness first appears.

The study, published in the journal Biological Psychiatry, shows that the loss of brain tissue is concentrated in areas of the brain associated with personality, decision-making and social behavior.

Lead author Dr. Andrew McIntosh, of the Division of Psychiatry at the University of Edinburgh, said: “This study represents the culmination of more than 10-years of work and is a significant step to understanding the origins of schizophrenia years before the onset of disability and medical treatment.”

The team analyzed brain scans of 146 people with a family history of schizophrenia – but who had not yet experienced any symptoms – and compared them to scans of 36 people with no such risk.

The scans were taken every 18 months over a 10-year period.

Source: University of Edinburgh

Brain Scans May Predict Schizophrenia

Rick Nauert PhD

Rick Nauert, PhDDr. Rick Nauert has over 25 years experience in clinical, administrative and academic healthcare. He is currently an associate professor for Rocky Mountain University of Health Professionals doctoral program in health promotion and wellness. Dr. Nauert began his career as a clinical physical therapist and served as a regional manager for a publicly traded multidisciplinary rehabilitation agency for 12 years. He has masters degrees in health-fitness management and healthcare administration and a doctoral degree from The University of Texas at Austin focused on health care informatics, health administration, health education and health policy. His research efforts included the area of telehealth with a specialty in disease management.

APA Reference
Nauert PhD, R. (2015). Brain Scans May Predict Schizophrenia. Psych Central. Retrieved on September 25, 2018, from https://psychcentral.com/news/2010/12/25/brain-scans-may-predict-schizophrenia/22139.html

 

Scientifically Reviewed
Last updated: 6 Oct 2015
Last reviewed: By John M. Grohol, Psy.D. on 6 Oct 2015
Published on PsychCentral.com. All rights reserved.