Contrary to common belief, smoking may increase depressive symptoms in some adolescents. Until recently, smoking by teenagers was seen as a means to ‘self-medicate’ against the blues.
Now, scientists at the University of Toronto and the University of Montreal have discovered that in the long term, teens who smoke demonstrated higher depressive symptoms.
The research, based on findings from the long-term Nicotine Dependence in Teens (NDIT) study, is published in the journal Addictive Behaviors.
“This observational study is one of the few to examine the perceived emotional benefits of smoking among adolescents,” says lead author Michael Chaiton, a research associate at the Ontario Tobacco Research Unit of the University of Toronto.
“Although cigarettes may appear to have self-medicating effects or to improve mood, in the long term we found teens who started to smoke reported higher depressive symptoms.”
As part of the study, some 662 high school teenagers completed up to 20 questionnaires from grades 7 to 11 about their use of cigarettes to affect mood. Secondary schools were selected to provide a mix of French and English participants, urban and rural schools, and schools located in high, moderate and low socioeconomic neighborhoods.
Participants were divided into three groups: never smokers; smokers who did not use cigarettes to self-medicate, improve mood or physical state; smokers who used cigarettes to self-medicate.
Depressive symptoms were measured using a scale that asked how often participants felt too tired to do things; had trouble going to sleep or staying asleep; felt unhappy, sad, or depressed; felt hopeless about the future; felt nervous or tense; and worried too much about things.
“Smokers who used cigarettes as mood enhancers had higher risks of elevated depressive symptoms than teens who had never smoked,” says coauthor Jennifer O’Loughlin.
“Our study found that adolescent smokersÂ who reported emotional benefits from smoking are at higher risk of developing depressive symptoms.”
The association between depression and smoking exists principally among teens that use cigarettes to feel better.
“It’s important to emphasize that depressive symptom scores were higher among teenagers who reported emotional benefits from smoking after they began to smoke,” says Dr. Chaiton.
Source: University of Montreal