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Problem Gamblers Wired To Take Another Chance

Problem Gamblers Wired To Take Another Chance The brain of problem gamblers appears to be wired to respond to “near misses,” stimulating the individual to take another chance and “play on.”

For these individuals, researchers discovered hyperactivity in the area of the brain that delivers the neurotransmitter called dopamine.

Prior studies have shown that pathological gambling may be very similar to an addiction, such as drug addiction.

Now, U.K. researchers Luke Clark, PhD, of the University of Cambridge, and Henry Chase, PhD, of the University of Nottingham find that the degree to which a person’s brain responds to near misses may indicate the severity of addiction.

In a given year, more than two million U.S. adults feel an uncontrollable urge to gamble despite negative consequences.

In this study, the researchers used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to scan the brains of 20 gamblers. The participants’ gambling habits ranged from buying the occasional lottery ticket to compulsive sports betting.

During the experiment, volunteers used an onscreen slot machine with two spinning wheels of icons.

When the two icons matched, the volunteer won about 75 cents, and the brain’s reward pathways became active. An icon mismatch was a loss. However, when the wheels stopped within one icon of a match, the outcome was considered a near miss.

Clark and his team found that near misses activated the same brain pathways that wins did, even though no reward was given.

“These findings are exciting because they suggest that near-miss outcomes may elicit a dopamine response in the more severe gamblers, despite the fact that no actual reward is delivered,” Clark said.

“If these bursts of dopamine are driving addictive behavior, this may help to explain why problem gamblers find it so difficult to quit.”

In particular, the authors detected strong responses in the midbrain, an area associated with addiction that is packed with dopamine-releasing brain cells.

They also found the near misses were linked with increased activity in brain regions called the ventral striatum and the anterior insula, areas tied with reward and learning.

Studies have shown that people who play games of chance, such as slot machines or the lottery, often mistakenly believe some level of skill is required to win. This illusion of control often pushes players to continue.

Matthew Roesch, PhD, an expert in reward and behavior at the University of Maryland College Park who was unaffiliated with the study, said the increased levels of dopamine during near misses may be critical in driving pathological gambling and supporting the misconception that games of chance involve any skill.

“Future work will be necessary to determine if this response is causal or if this abnormality is a preexisting trait of pathological gamblers — and whether or not it is common across addictions,” Roesch said.

The research is presented in the latest issue of The Journal of Neuroscience.

Source: Society for Neuroscience

Problem Gamblers Wired To Take Another Chance

Rick Nauert PhD

Rick Nauert, PhDDr. Rick Nauert has over 25 years experience in clinical, administrative and academic healthcare. He is currently an associate professor for Rocky Mountain University of Health Professionals doctoral program in health promotion and wellness. Dr. Nauert began his career as a clinical physical therapist and served as a regional manager for a publicly traded multidisciplinary rehabilitation agency for 12 years. He has masters degrees in health-fitness management and healthcare administration and a doctoral degree from The University of Texas at Austin focused on health care informatics, health administration, health education and health policy. His research efforts included the area of telehealth with a specialty in disease management.

APA Reference
Nauert PhD, R. (2015). Problem Gamblers Wired To Take Another Chance. Psych Central. Retrieved on May 24, 2018, from https://psychcentral.com/news/2010/05/07/problem-gamblers-wired-to-take-another-chance/13598.html

 

Scientifically Reviewed
Last updated: 6 Oct 2015
Last reviewed: By John M. Grohol, Psy.D. on 6 Oct 2015
Published on PsychCentral.com. All rights reserved.