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Young Girls at Risk for Depression May Shut Down

A new report finds that young girls at high risk for depression may present a diminished response to pleasure or sadness. The responses occur before symptoms of depression appear.

“A hallmark characteristic of major depressive disorder is the diminished experience of pleasure or reward,” the authors write as background information in the article.

“For example, compared with non-depressed persons, depressed individuals have been found to be characterized by attenuated [decreased] reactivity to slides depicting pleasant scenes, to amusing film clips, to pleasant drinks and to monetary reward contingencies.”

Recent research has suggested that these variations are reflected in underlying differences in the way the brain processes pleasant stimuli.

To begin assessing whether these deficits precede the onset of depression or are a consequence of the disorder, Ian H. Gotlib, Ph.D., of Stanford University and colleagues studied thirteen 10- to 14-year-old girls who did not have depression themselves but whose mothers had recurrent depression (high-risk group).

They were compared with 13 girls who were the same age but had no personal or family history of depression (low-risk group).

All 26 participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while completing a task involving the possibility of reward and punishment.

They were first shown a target and told that if a circle appeared, they could gain points by being fast enough to hit the target. If a square appeared, they could avoid losing points by hitting the target quickly. If a triangle appeared, they could neither win nor lose points and should avoid responding.

The task consisted of 100 six-second trials, each of which contained an anticipation phase and a feedback phase, during which the girls were told whether they gained or lost points. The points could be redeemed for prizes at the end of the task.

The images revealed important differences in the way the two groups responded to the task. The high-risk group displayed diminished neural responses during both anticipation and receipt of the reward when compared with the low-risk group.

Specifically, they did not show any activation in a brain area known as the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, which appears to be involved in reinforcing past experiences to facilitate learning.

However, compared with low-risk girls, high-risk girls showed an increased activation in this area when receiving punishment. This suggests they may more easily integrate information about loss and punishment than reward and pleasure over time.

“Considered together with reduced activation in the striatal areas commonly observed during reward, it seems that the reward processing system is critically impaired in daughters who are at elevated risk for depression, although they have not yet experienced a depressive episode,” the authors conclude.

“Clearly, longitudinal studies are needed to determine whether the anomalous activations observed in this study during the processing of rewards and losses are associated with the subsequent onset of depression.”

The findings are reported in the April issue of Archives of General Psychiatry, one of the JAMA/Archives journals.

Source: Archives of General Psychiatry

Young Girls at Risk for Depression May Shut Down

Rick Nauert PhD

Rick Nauert, PhDDr. Rick Nauert has over 25 years experience in clinical, administrative and academic healthcare. He is currently an associate professor for Rocky Mountain University of Health Professionals doctoral program in health promotion and wellness. Dr. Nauert began his career as a clinical physical therapist and served as a regional manager for a publicly traded multidisciplinary rehabilitation agency for 12 years. He has masters degrees in health-fitness management and healthcare administration and a doctoral degree from The University of Texas at Austin focused on health care informatics, health administration, health education and health policy. His research efforts included the area of telehealth with a specialty in disease management.

APA Reference
Nauert PhD, R. (2015). Young Girls at Risk for Depression May Shut Down. Psych Central. Retrieved on May 25, 2018, from https://psychcentral.com/news/2010/04/09/young-girls-at-risk-for-depression-may-shut-down/12717.html

 

Scientifically Reviewed
Last updated: 6 Oct 2015
Last reviewed: By John M. Grohol, Psy.D. on 6 Oct 2015
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