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Evolution of Cooperative Behavior

Evolution of Cooperative BehaviorA new study seeks to explain why strangers routinely engage in voluntary acts of kindness and mutual respect even at the threat of harm to the individual.

While evolutionary forces may spur behavior associated with kinship and reciprocity among other primates, these forces do not easily explain similar behavior in large, unrelated groups, such as those that most humans live in.

A new study co-authored by University of California, Davis, anthropologist Richard McElreath and published in Science suggests that the cooperative nature of each society is at least partly dependent upon historical forces — such as religious beliefs and the growth of market transactions.

The study also found the extent to which a society uses punishment to enforce norms increases and decreases with the number of people in the society.

“It is likely that small and large communities regulate cooperation — mutual defense, conservation, etc. — in different ways, because different mechanisms of monitoring and enforcement of norms work better at different scales of society,” explained McElreath, an associate professor of anthropology at UC-Davis.

“A small town in Kansas, for example, can likely rely upon reputation and the fact that everyone knows everyone else, while the residents of New York City need some mechanism, like punishment, that can work in the absence of reliable reputations,” he said.

McElreath was one of 14 researchers on three different continents who participated in the project detailed in the paper, “Markets, Religion, Community Size, and the Evolution of Fairness and Punishment.”

The researchers probed why communities often cooperate in diverse ways, from mutual defense to conservation. People engage in such mutually beneficial acts even though they may be individually costly.

Using behavioral experiments administered across 15 diverse populations, the study sought to measure the influence of three different mechanisms — punishment, market integration and religious beliefs — that might maintain cooperation within societies.

Market integration is the extent to which individuals use anonymous, rule-governed transactions to buy and sell goods.

The researchers found that overt punishment, religious beliefs that can act as a form of psychological punishment and market integration each were correlated with fairness in the experiments.

Source: University of California — Davis

Evolution of Cooperative Behavior

Rick Nauert PhD

Rick Nauert, PhDDr. Rick Nauert has over 25 years experience in clinical, administrative and academic healthcare. He is currently an associate professor for Rocky Mountain University of Health Professionals doctoral program in health promotion and wellness. Dr. Nauert began his career as a clinical physical therapist and served as a regional manager for a publicly traded multidisciplinary rehabilitation agency for 12 years. He has masters degrees in health-fitness management and healthcare administration and a doctoral degree from The University of Texas at Austin focused on health care informatics, health administration, health education and health policy. His research efforts included the area of telehealth with a specialty in disease management.

APA Reference
Nauert PhD, R. (2018). Evolution of Cooperative Behavior. Psych Central. Retrieved on February 24, 2019, from
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Last updated: 8 Aug 2018
Last reviewed: By a member of our scientific advisory board on 8 Aug 2018
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