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Practice Multitasking To Improve Performance

Our modern world presents a variety of demands that can be overwhelming. Accordingly, individuals often multitask to try to stay ahead of the challenges.

Rather than being an innate ability, new research suggests that by training, a person can increase brain processing speed and improve the ability to multitask.

“We found that a key limitation to efficient multitasking is the speed with which our prefrontal cortex processes information, and that this speed can be drastically increased through training and practice,” Paul E. Dux, co-author of the study, said.

“Specifically, we found that with training, the ‘thinking’ regions of our brain become very fast at doing each task, thereby quickly freeing them up to take on other tasks.”

To understand what was occurring in the brain when multitasking efficiency improved, the researchers trained seven people daily for two weeks on two simple tasks — selecting an appropriate finger response to different images, and selecting an appropriate vocal response (syllables) to the presentation of different sounds.

The tasks were done either separately or together (multitasking situation). Scans of the individuals’ brains were conducted three times over the two weeks using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while they were performing the tasks.

Before practice, the participants showed strong dual-task interference—slowing down of one or both tasks when they attempted to perform them together. As a result of practice and training, however, the individuals became very quick not only at doing each of the two tasks separately, but also at doing them together. In other words, they became very efficient multitaskers.

The fMRI data indicate that these gains were the result of information being processed more quickly and efficiently through the prefrontal cortex.

“Our results imply that the fundamental reason we are lousy multitaskers is because our brains process each task slowly, creating a bottleneck at the central stage of decision making,” René Marois, associate professor of psychology at Vanderbilt University and co-author of the study, said.

“Practice enables our brain to process each task more quickly through this bottleneck, speeding up performance overall.”

The researchers also found the subjects, while appearing to multitask simultaneously, were not actually doing so.

“Our findings also suggest that, even after extensive practice, our brain does not really do two tasks at once,” Dux said. “It is still processing one task at a time, but it does it so fast it gives us the illusion we are doing two tasks simultaneously.”

The researchers noted that though their results showed increased efficiency in the posterior prefrontal cortex, this effect and multitasking itself are likely not supported solely by this brain area.

“It is conceivable, for example, that more anterior regions of prefrontal cortex become involved as tasks become more abstract and require greater levels of cognitive control,” Marois said.

The research was funded by the National Institute of Mental Health. The findings are published in the journal Neuron.

Source: Vanderbilt University

Practice Multitasking To Improve Performance

Rick Nauert PhD

Rick Nauert, PhDDr. Rick Nauert has over 25 years experience in clinical, administrative and academic healthcare. He is currently an associate professor for Rocky Mountain University of Health Professionals doctoral program in health promotion and wellness. Dr. Nauert began his career as a clinical physical therapist and served as a regional manager for a publicly traded multidisciplinary rehabilitation agency for 12 years. He has masters degrees in health-fitness management and healthcare administration and a doctoral degree from The University of Texas at Austin focused on health care informatics, health administration, health education and health policy. His research efforts included the area of telehealth with a specialty in disease management.

APA Reference
Nauert PhD, R. (2016). Practice Multitasking To Improve Performance. Psych Central. Retrieved on December 14, 2018, from https://psychcentral.com/news/2009/07/17/practice-multitasking-to-improve-performance/7174.html

 

Scientifically Reviewed
Last updated: 5 Jul 2016
Last reviewed: By John M. Grohol, Psy.D. on 5 Jul 2016
Published on PsychCentral.com. All rights reserved.