A new research study suggests a group-based psychological treatment called Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) could be a viable alternative to prescription drugs for people suffering from long-term depression. In a study published today (1 December 2008) in the Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, MBCT proved as effective as maintenance anti-depressants in preventing a relapse and more effective in enhancing people’s quality of life.
The study also showed MBCT to be as cost-effective as prescription drugs in helping people with a history of depression stay well long-term.
The randomized control trial involved 123 people from urban and rural locations who had suffered repeat depressions and were referred to the trial by their GPs.
The participants were split randomly into two groups. Half continued their ongoing antidepressant drug treatment and the rest participated in an MBCT course and were given the option of coming off antidepressants.
Over the 15 months after the trial, 47 percent of the group following the MBCT course experienced a relapse compared with 60 percent of those continuing their normal treatment, including antidepressant drugs.
In addition, the group on the MBCT program reported a higher quality of life, in terms of their overall enjoyment of daily living and physical well-being.
Members of the study team from the Institute of Psychiatry, King’s College London also compared the cost of providing MBCT programs with the cost of maintenance antidepressant treatment.
The findings suggest that MBCT provides a cost-effective alternative to antidepressant drugs.
Unlike most other psychological therapies, MBCT can be taught in groups by a single therapist, and patients then continue to practice the skills they have learned at home by themselves.
Therefore, MBCT is less costly than individual treatments and is not dependent on having the large number of trained therapists needed for one-to-one psychological treatment. It could help the National Health Service shorten its waiting lists for psychological therapies.
During the eight-week trial, groups of between eight and fifteen people met with one therapist. They learned a range of meditation exercises that they could continue to practice on their own once the course ended.
Many of the exercises were based on Buddhist meditation techniques and helped the individual take time to focus on the present, rather than dwelling on past events, or planning for future tasks.
The exercises worked in a different way for each person, but many reported greater acceptance of, and more control over, negative thoughts and feelings.
Professor Willem Kuyken of the University of Exeter said: “Anti-depressants are widely used by people who suffer from depression and that’s because they tend to work.
“But, while they’re very effective in helping reduce the symptoms of depression, when people come off them they are particularly vulnerable to relapse. MBCT takes a different approach – it teaches people skills for life. What we have shown is that when people work at it, these skills for life help keep people well.”
Professor Kuyken continues: “Our results suggest MBCT may be a viable alternative for some of the 3.5 million people in the UK known to be suffering from this debilitating condition.
“People who suffer depression have long asked for psychological approaches to help them recover in the long-term and MBCT is a very promising approach. I think we have the basis for offering patients and GPs an alternative to long-term anti-depressant medication. We are planning to conduct a larger trial to put these results to the test and to examine how MBCT works.”
MBCT was developed by a team of psychologists from Toronto (Zindel Segal), Oxford (Mark Williams) and Cambridge (John Teasdale) in 2002 to help people who suffer repeated bouts of depression.
It focuses on targeting negative thinking and aims to help people who are very vulnerable to recurring depression stop depressed moods from spiraling out of control into a full episode of depression. MBCT is becoming more widely available as part of psychological treatment services in the NHS.
Source: University of Exeter