A Diagnosis Depends on Subjective Report
The diagnosis of depression or bipolar disorder will be made largely upon the subjective report of the individual when they go to see a mental health professional for the first session. Often referred to as an “intake interview” or the “initial evaluation,” this session is first and foremost an information-gathering session for the clinician. Gathering information about you, your history and your symptoms helps the clinician make a more reliable diagnosis.
For instance, if a person is depressed and goes to the first session complaining of depression, the clinician will ask questions to see if they’ve ever experienced anything that might be considered a manic or hypomanic episode. If they do not find such an episode in the individual’s history, they are likely to diagnose the individual with a type of depression or depressive disorder (the exact diagnosis will depend on the individual’s history).
If, on the other hand, the individual reports they have experienced manic (or hypomanic) episodes in the past, a bipolar diagnosis is more likely. There may be other factors that affect the diagnosis beyond the simple lists of symptoms above. The clinician, however, is trained to ask you the right questions to ensure they arrive at the most accurate diagnosis.
Great, I’ve Been Diagnosed. Now What?
Once properly diagnosed with bipolar disorder or depression, an individual will be prescribed a course of treatment consistent with their own unique needs, background, and severity of the disorder. In both cases, a course of medications and psychotherapy is likely to be recommended, as the combination of the two seems to be the most effective in helping most people feel better more quickly.
While some bipolar medications may begin working within a few weeks, medications that work on depressive feelings generally take longer for most people to feel their full therapeutic effects. Research has shown that this period of time can be anywhere from 6 to 8 weeks for most people who take antidepressant medications. In the meantime, a person is generally prescribed a course of psychotherapy to help deal with the depression with other methods (such as cognitive-behavioral therapy and techniques).
Most people diagnosed with either bipolar disorder or depression generally feel better within a few months and many people can safely discontinue treatment with their doctor’s recommendation within a year. The actual length of treatment varies widely, however, based upon the severity of the disorder, the effectiveness of the treatment for that individual, and other factors.