Anxiety disorders are divided into six major categories:
- generalized anxiety disorder (GAD);
- panic disorder;
- obsessive-compulsive disorder;
- acute stress disorder; and
- post-traumatic stress disorder.
Because the symptoms of each category overlap somewhat, it is not uncommon for someone to be diagnosed with more than one anxiety disorder at any given time. These disorders are collectively relatively common; at least three percent of the U.S. population has experienced an anxiety disorder.
Here’s a table comparing the characteristics of different types of anxiety:
|Worry||Normal, low-grade concern|
|Stress Anxiety||Brief alarm, then back to normal|
|Generalized Anxiety Disorder||Constant low-grade worry. Constant yellow alert|
|Panic Attacks||Sudden, inexplicable panic. Red alert|
What Causes an Anxiety Disorder?
No one knows for sure. There is evidence that some people are born more prone to anxiety than others, and evidence that societal factors play a large role as well. Parents with a tendency to be overly anxious can pass that tendency on to their children. Unsupportive or abusive family lives can cause the development of anxiety disorders as well. Still others develop anxiety disorders because they are exposed to a traumatic event like an accident, natural disaster, or severe abuse that makes them question their basic safety in the world. As a general rule, studies indicate that women are twice as likely to develop anxiety disorders as men.
Finally, there are some physical conditions that make people act like they are having panic attacks or anxiety. Among these are hypoglycemia, hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, a mitral valve prolapse, inner ear problems, congestive heart failure, deficiencies of certain minerals and vitamins, withdrawal (like nicotine withdrawal), and PMS.
For more information on specific anxiety disorders, continue with Part 2 of this series.
On 3 Oct 2005
By John M. Grohol, Psy.D.