All victims of domestic violence can be physically and emotionally injured. However, because of general strength differences between men and women, women are six to seven times more likely to receive serious physical injuries than are men.
There are some startling statistics about the frequency of physical injuries to women.
- Domestic violence is the most frequent cause of injuries in women ages 15 to 44. The incidence of injuries from domestic violence is greater than the combined causes of all other injuries to women.
- The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services reported that more than 1 million women seek ER or hospital treatment for serious injuries caused by battering each year.
- One in every four women will experience domestic violence in her lifetime.
- One study reported that 28 percent of the battered women who came to one large city’s emergency room required inpatient hospitalization for their injuries and 13 percent required major medical treatment. This study found that 40 percent of the sample’s 218 women had received medical care for abuse injuries in the past.
- Somewhere between 3 and 4 million women in the United States are beaten in their homes each year by their partner.
Emotional abuse does not produce cuts and bruises like physical abuse, so its scars are more difficult to recognize and treat. However, emotional abuse can leave deep scars on the psychological well-being of the victim. Also, emotional abuse often leads to substance abuse, low self-esteem, feelings of powerlessness, isolation, alienation, anxiety and depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder.
Because women are so often the victims, more is known about their psychological injuries.
Psychologist Lenore Walker studied female victims and described a “battered woman syndrome.” She found that women who repeatedly experience physical, sexual or serious emotional abuse tend to be affected in common ways, and begin to show similar behavior.
These battered women:
- Minimize and deny the abuse.
- Block the abuse incidents from their memory.
- Have anxiety, fearfulness or panic because of constant stress.
- Numb themselves to avoid dealing with the situation.
- Have recurrent flashbacks of battering episodes.
- Have specific fears and are continually watching out for signs of further harm.
Studies have documented that many battered women suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder, or PTSD. The likelihood of a PTSD diagnosis and severe PTSD symptoms is correlated with more severe domestic violence experiences.