Panic disorder—Characterized by panic attacks, sudden feelings of terror that strike repeatedly and without warning.
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)—Repeated, intrusive and unwanted thoughts or rituals that seem impossible to control.
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)—Persistent symptoms that occur after experiencing a traumatic event, such as war, rape, child abuse, a natural disaster or being taken hostage. Nightmares, flashbacks, numbing of emotions, depression and irritability are common.
Social phobia—Extreme, disabling and irrational fear of something that really poses little or no actual danger. The fear leads to avoidance of situations and can cause people to limit their lives.
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)—Chronic, exaggerated worry about everyday routine life events and activities; perpetual anticipation of disaster accompanied by physical symptoms, such as fatigue, trembling, muscle tension, headache or nausea.
Jerilyn Ross, president of the Anxiety Disorders Association of America (ADAA), explains why these very different disorders are grouped together under one heading.
What anxiety disorders have in common
“They all involve irrational, seemingly uncontrollable and frightening thoughts, which often results in avoidance behavior. And in all cases, the person with the disorder is fully aware that their behavior is irrational,” says Ross. “This differentiates this group of illnesses from psychotic illnesses. What’s more, in most cases the disorder impairs the person’s normal functioning.”
Ross says she isn’t convinced that anxiety cases are on the rise. “But we have become better at diagnosing them, and people are more forthcoming about reporting them,” she says.
Although the different anxiety disorders are considered to be a family of related conditions, we know much more about some of them than about others. GAD is the newest of the group in terms of our understanding. Before it was identified, people would be dismissed in a condescending way as the “worried well.”
“A recent study by the World Health Organization suggests that the odds of developing an anxiety disorder have doubled in the last 40 years.”
PTSD: Recurring Panic and Flashbacks
By contrast, post-traumatic stress disorder was identified at the start of the last century. Back then it was called shell shock or battle fatigue and was used to describe the mental health problems of servicemen who were traumatized in World War I.
For many people with PTSD, just thinking about the original cause of trauma is enough to bring on a panic attack. In fact, the chief problem with post-traumatic stress disorder is that its sufferers repeatedly relive their trauma through nightmares, flashbacks and visceral memories. They may also experience insomnia, depression and extreme irritability. Some people even become violent.
A recent study by the World Health Organization suggests that the odds of developing an anxiety disorder have doubled in the last 40 years. Harvard Medical School’s Ronald Kessler, who coauthored the study, explains, “A lot of it has to do with the world we live in. It’s a scary place. People are moving to strange cities, taking jobs in new industries; there’s a lot of uncertainty about the future. And things like mugging, murders, car accidents and terrorism are on the rise.”
For most people, worrying is not pathological. And feeling anxious or fearful is a normal response to stressful or threatening situations. You need to be alert when taking an exam, meeting performance targets at work, negotiating difficult traffic or fleeing from an attacker—it’s part of the body’s “fight or flight” reflex.
With anxiety disorders, though, the body sends out regular false alarms, driving people into paroxysms of fear and palpitating panic attacks. In other words, the body primes itself to meet a threat when no threat exists.
According to the ADAA, between 3 million and 6 million people in America suffer panic attacks. Without any provocation at all, they feel the same emotional and physical sensations they would if their lives were in jeopardy. The attacks seem to materialize out of thin air, and the symptoms are alarming in the extreme, ranging from a racing heartbeat, chest pains, dizziness and nausea to difficulty breathing, tingling or numbness and irrational fearfulness.
Not everyone who suffers a panic attack develops a panic disorder; some people never have a second attack. But those who suspect they have a disorder should seek treatment, because it can become extremely disabling if left untreated. Panic disorders can compound existing problems, such as depression or alcoholism, and spawn phobias.
In severe cases, people can end up avoiding social contact and shunning everyday activities like driving and shopping, even leaving the house. When people’s lives become so restricted, the condition is called agoraphobia (Greek for “fear of the market”). Clinical research suggests that early treatment of panic disorder can often stop it from progressing to agoraphobia.
Anxiety Disorder Clinical Research Trials
Dr. David Spiegel, director of clinical and medical programs at Boston University’s Center for Anxiety-Related Disorders, has been involved in trials monitoring more than 300 patients suffering from panic disorder. The results, published this summer in the New England Medical Journal, showed that the use of antidepressants and cognitive therapy work equally well, but that a combination of the two produced no curative leap.
The upshot is that people should go with one treatment or the other. The only proviso is that relapse rates were much higher among those treated with medication.
Spiegel says that anxiety disorders tend to run in families. Indeed, research on identical twins has shown that there is a genetic component to most anxiety disorders. But only 30 percent of cases are attributable to genetics.
“What accounts for the rest is a combination of psychological factors,” says Spiegel. “Some people are more stress-sensitive than others and will rush to the ER when they experience a racing heartbeat, when someone else might just surmise that they’d drunk too much coffee that day.”
More anxiety disorders in developed countries?
Spiegel does not share Ronald Kessler’s view that a more stressful and angst-ridden society begets more anxiety disorders, because no correlation has been found between the level of development and incidences of anxiety disorder in other countries.
“Genetically, there is little reason to believe that you would find a difference in developed and undeveloped countries, because the flight or fight system…arises in the most primitive part of the brain. In fact, it’s even found in snails,” says Spiegel.
“What differs are the levels of stress different cultures place on individuals and how much a society is willing to tolerate and share that stress,” he says. “In a culture where there are strong support networks, someone with an anxiety disorder may not be identified at all.”
“Modern American society is less tolerant,” says Spiegel, “and the consequences of not being able to perform at your peak are greater. Also, our support networks have been decimated by families moving far away from another; people are on their own more and more.”
Support Networks to Help with Anxiety
In recognition of people’s need for support networks, the ADAA has installed a chatroom on its website where people with different anxiety disorders can meet. One participant, who I’ll call Tyrone, has Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. He cannot leave the house without checking everything—the stove, the taps, the lights—several times over before going out. Tyrone takes no pleasure in this ritual behavior; all it provides is temporary relief from feeling anxious.
Psych Central also hosts its own anxiety support group for people with any type of anxiety concern — whether it be generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, phobias, or something else. The site also hosts separate support groups for PTSD as well as for obsessive-compulsive disorder. All of these support groups and chat rooms are available free and can be accessed anonymously.
“Being member of the ADAA has helped me enormously,” says Tyrone, who joined the site’s chatroom out of desperation. “My anxiety is sometimes so acute, I can’t leave the house for days. I was isolated, and I was hurting mentally and physically…. A few individuals [in the chatroom] were friendly and helpful. Eventually I learned that I wasn’t the only one, that my symptoms were common.”
There’s more good news for people with anxiety disorders: The NIMH appointed Yale professor Dennis Charney in 2000 to head up a new mood and anxiety disorders program. Charney is expected to coordinate this research activity with new research in experimental therapeutics.