“The texture of a depressed person’s brain functioning is that it’s operating in a depleted way,” according to Deborah Serani, Psy.D, a clinical psychologist and author of the book Living with Depression. This depletion leads to a variety of intrusive cognitive symptoms, such as distorted thinking, poor concentration, distractibility, indecision and forgetfulness. These cognitive symptoms impair all areas of a person’s life, from their work to their relationships.

Fortunately, key strategies can reduce and improve these symptoms. “The most important strategy is definitive treatment for the depression with psychotherapy and medication,” said William Marchand, M.D., a clinical associate professor of psychiatry at the University of Utah School of Medicine and author of the book Depression and Bipolar Disorder: Your Guide to Recovery.

For instance, psychotherapy helps individuals become more aware of their cognitive symptoms, which can be subtle, Dr. Marchand said. It also teaches individuals specific techniques to improve their symptoms. And it helps clients gain a more accurate perspective on their illness.

“Because of the negative thinking associated with depression, there is a tendency to interpret symptoms as personal failings rather than as symptoms of an illness. A therapist can help one see things as they are – rather than through the distorting lens of depression,” Marchand said.

In addition to professional treatment, there are many strategies you can practice on your own to improve cognitive symptoms. Below are several techniques you can try.

Revise Distorted Thoughts

“I think it’s vital to teach any depressed individual how to ‘think happy,’” Serani said. Revising problematic thought patterns is key because they only fuel the fog and despair of depression.

“This approach definitely takes some time, patience and elbow grease, but once [it’s] learned, [it] enhances well-being.”

The first step is to monitor your negative thoughts, which you can record in a journal. A negative thought is anything such as “I’m a total loser” or “I can’t do anything right,” she said.

It’s also important to focus on how a negative thought affects your mood. By and large, it derails it. “Generally, [negative thoughts] will worsen mood, decrease hope and lower self-esteem.”

Next, challenge the reality of your thought, and replace it with a healthier one. Serani gave the following example: “Am I really a loser? Do I really do everything wrong? Actually, I get a lot of things right in life. So I’m not really a loser.”

Finally, review how each realistic thought affects your mood. According to Serani, it “leads to a healthier frame of mind. Now this new, healthy thought replaces the negative one and shifts mood into a less depressive place.”

Use Your Senses

“For helping with executive functioning skills for memory, focus and decision-making, I always recommend using your sense of sight, hearing and touch,” Serani said.

Technology can be especially helpful. For instance, you can set reminders for taking medication, attending therapy and running errands on your smart phone, computer or tablet.

If you don’t have access to technology or prefer pen and paper, Serani suggested placing brightly colored notes with reminders around your home and office. “Using touch to write will track the task more deeply into your memory and the visual cue to ‘see’ the reminder will help you keep your focus.”

Your sense of touch also can help when making a decision, said Serani, who uses this technique herself, “especially if I’m struggling with a significant melancholic mood.” She suggested a grounding practice, which “helps you be in the moment”: Place your hand on your heart, take a deep, slow breath and ask yourself the question you need to know. “Slowing things down and focusing on your sense of self can better help you make decisions.”

Take Small Steps

“Depression has a way of taxing you physical[ly], emotional[ly] and intellectual[ly], so taking smaller steps will help keep your energy reserve from burning out,” Serani said. Break down longer, more complicated tasks into bite-sized steps. This helps you “rest, refuel and re-attend [to your task].”

Have A Cushion

Therese Borchard, a mental health blogger and author of the book Beyond Blue: Surviving Depression & Anxiety and Making the Most of Bad Genes, also struggles with cognitive symptoms from time to time. Whenever possible, she reduces her workload. “I’ve always prepared for days like that by working a little harder on the days I feel good, so I have a little cushion.”

Take Breaks

Because depression is so taxing on your brain and body, taking breaks can help. When she’s working, Borchard takes breaks every two hours, or “every hour if I’m really struggling.” Your breaks might include stretching your body or taking a walk around the block.

Be Kind To Yourself

“One of the most important things to do is remember not to be too hard on yourself if you still find you’re forgetful, have trouble focusing or making decisions,” Serani said. “Remember that you are experiencing a real illness.” Blaming yourself and losing patience only adds “to your already full plate.”

As Borchard noted in this piece on working from home with a mental illness, “When I was in the midst of my most severe depression, I couldn’t write at all. For almost a year…I try to remember that when I have a bad day where my brain feels like silly putty and I am not able to string two words together. I try to remember that courage isn’t doing a heroic thing, but getting up day after day and trying again.”