Stages of Change
In the 1980s, two well-known alcoholism researchers, Carlo C. DiClemente and J.O. Prochaska, introduced a six-stage model of change to help professionals understand their clients with addiction problems and motivate them to change. Their model is based not on abstract theories, but rather on their personal observations of how people went about modifying problem behaviors such as smoking, overeating, and problem drinking.
They called the general steps they observed people take stages of change or stages of behavioral change. The six stages of change they identified are:
- Relapse or Termination
Understanding your readiness to change by being familiar with the six-stage model of change can help you choose treatments that are right for you. A treatment professional with the right training will understand where you are in terms of readiness to stop drinking and help you find and maintain the motivation to stop drinking.
Individuals in the precontemplation stage of change are not even thinking about changing their drinking behavior. They may not see it as a problem, or they think that others who point out the problem are exaggerating.
There are many reasons to be in precontemplation, and Dr. DiClemente has referred to them as “the Four Rs” — reluctance, rebellion, resignation and rationalization:
- Reluctant precontemplators are those who through lack of knowledge or inertia do not want to consider change. The impact of the problem has not become fully conscious.
- Rebellious precontemplators have a heavy investment in drinking and in making their own decisions. They are resistant to being told what to do.
- Resigned precontemplators have given up hope about the possibility of change and seem overwhelmed by the problem. Many have made many attempts to quit or control their drinking.
- Rationalizing precontemplators have all the answers; they have plenty of reasons why drinking is not a problem, or why drinking is a problem for others but not for them.
Individuals in this stage of change are willing to consider the possibility that they have a problem, and the possibility offers hope for change. However, people who are contemplating change are often highly ambivalent. They are on the fence. Contemplation is not a commitment, not a decision to change. People at this stage are often quite interested in learning about alcoholism and treatment. They know that drinking is causing problems, and they often have a mental list of all the reasons that drinking is bad for them. But even with all these negatives, they still cannot make a decision to change.
In the contemplation stage, often with the help of a treatment professional, people make a risk-reward analysis. They consider the pros and cons of their behavior, and the pros and cons of change. They think about the previous attempts they have made to stop drinking, and what has caused failure in the past.
Preparation to Action: Determination
Deciding to stop drinking is the hallmark of this stage of change. All the weighing of pros and cons, all the risk-reward analysis, finally tips the balance in favor of change. Not all ambivalence has been resolved, but ambivalence no longer represents an insurmountable barrier to change. Most individuals in this stage will make a serious attempt to stop drinking in the near future. Individuals in this stage appear to be ready and committed to action.