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How Birth Order Influences Who We Are

Contrary to what some popular psychology books tell us, birth order is not destiny. All first-borns are not fated to be president of a big company. Youngests don’t necessarily become the family free spirits and artists. The order in which we enter our family is, however, one of the many factors that shape us into who we are. The family, whatever the family make-up, is our first society. It is the place where we learn about what we can expect of other people and what others expect of us.

Anything we learn early and that is repeated often, whether a language, a belief, a role, or a way to do something, has enormous staying power. (You probably remember a TV theme song from a show you watched every night when you were eight better than you remember what you ate for dinner yesterday.) The early lessons we learn about our place in the social order of our families are thus very powerful.

It’s true that every child brings personality and temperament to the equation but it is interactions with others that strengthen some traits and banish others. Each day, many times a day, babies and young children are shown what will get them rewarded with smiles and an extra cookie, and what will make the big people upset and rejecting. Intelligent little creatures that they are, the kids soon start repeating what sets them apart in the crowd so that they get the attention they need from those around them.

Because families in cultures share some stated values, they generally have some shared ideas about the right way to raise children (even if they don’t actually succeed at it). Stories, songs, plays (as well as TV shows and movies) of each culture support a common idea of the importance of family and the value of certain roles. The result is that children in these families come to some similar conclusions.

In middle American culture in which there is a strong value on education and achievement, first-borns and only children often become achievers; second-borns tend to rebel against the pressure to succeed in academics or business but find success in being socially capable; babies develop skills in charm and getting others to do things for them. In larger families, kids have more room to go their own ways and to develop their own abilities. Because the parents’ attention is spread thinner, kids in very big families either learn to rely on each other or, conversely, become super-competitive for what attention is available. All of these personal styles, though different, are nonetheless in the service of becoming successful in life.

Remember that it is not the birth order itself that determines a child’s personality but rather how that child interprets his situation and how the rest of the family rewards or rejects what he makes of it. But because there are cultural similarities among children born in the same position, knowing them does give students of people a place to start when trying to understand what makes a person who he or she is.

Why Each Sibling Grows Up in a Different Family

For most families, the arrival of the firstborn is a big event. It changes people into parents. It changes a couple into a family. For single moms, a baby changes her from being a single to being a single parent family. The first child therefore usually gets more focus and fuss than those further down the line. He spends most of his early life with grownups as his models for human behavior. Pleasing them by being like them usually is the ticket for getting what he wants and needs so he figures out what they like and does it.

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Each succeeding child enters a different, larger, more complicated family. The second-born has a bigger and more capable older brother or sister to deal with. The family of three has now become four. Parents, whether delighted or dismayed by the arrival of number two, tend to be more stretched. That second kid takes a look at the scene and figures that the first one has already cornered the market on certain skills and traits. He knows he can’t compete. That other kid is bigger and has a head start. If he is to be seen and fussed over, he’d better come up with something else. The most obvious answer, especially if the kids are the same gender, is to be the opposite of number one. Being a different gender makes number two’s job easier because difference and specialness is built in.

With the arrival of a third, the kids now outnumber the adults. One adult has only two hands, making it more difficult for one parent to manage the kids. Number three now has not one, but two bigger, more capable kids in his life. The challenge of finding a unique role and getting a piece of the attention pie has become more complicated — and more subtle. “Hmm,” thinks this little one, “Role X is taken. The opposite is taken. How can I find a place?” Often they opt out of the competition going on between one and two and find yet another way to assert themselves. And so on, and so on. Each child has a more complicated job to get the attention he needs and assert his individuality.

How Birth Order Influences Who We Are

Marie Hartwell-Walker, Ed.D.

Marie Hartwell-WalkerDr. Marie Hartwell-Walker is licensed as both a psychologist and marriage and family counselor. She specializes in couples and family therapy and parent education. She writes regularly for Psych Central as well as Psych Central's Ask the Therapist feature. She is author of the insightful parenting e-book, Tending the Family Heart.

Check out her book, Unlocking the Secrets of Self-Esteem.

APA Reference
Hartwell-Walker, M. (2020). How Birth Order Influences Who We Are. Psych Central. Retrieved on August 5, 2020, from
Scientifically Reviewed
Last updated: 29 Jul 2020 (Originally: 17 May 2016)
Last reviewed: By a member of our scientific advisory board on 29 Jul 2020
Published on Psych All rights reserved.