Depression and anxiety are prevalent problems in colleges across the country. “There is no question that all of the national surveys we have at our fingertips show a distinct rise in the number of mental health problems,” said Jerald Kay, M.D., Professor and Chair of the Department of Psychiatry at the Wright State University School of Medicine. Indeed, in the past 15 years, depression has doubled and suicide tripled, he said. According to a survey from the Anxiety Disorders Association of America (ADAA), universities and colleges also have seen an increase in students seeking services for anxiety disorders.
The average age of onset for many mental health conditions is the typical college age range of 18 to 24 years old, said Courtney Knowles, executive director of The JED Foundation, a charitable organization that aims to reduce suicide and improve mental health for college students. In fact, according to the National Institute of Mental Health, 75 percent of all individuals with an anxiety disorder will experience symptoms before age 22, as cited in the ADAA Report.
Other students, who might not have clinical anxiety or depression, still suffer. According to the 2006 American College Health Association Survey, 45 percent of women and 36 percent of men felt so depressed that it was difficult to function.
During college, “students deal with a unique amount of stressors,” said Knowles. Specifically, college calls for a significant transition, where “students experience many firsts, including new lifestyle, friends, roommates, exposure to new cultures and alternate ways of thinking,” said Hilary Silver, M.S.W., a licensed clinical social worker and mental health expert for Campus Calm.
When students can’t manage these firsts, they’re more likely to struggle. “If students do not feel adequate or prepared to cope with the new environment of a college campus, they could easily become susceptible to depression and anxiety,” said Harrison Davis, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Counseling and Coordinator of the Community Counseling master’s program at North Georgia College & State University.
Feelings of inadequacy can stem from academic stressors. In college, competition is much more significant, said Dr. Kay. So, there is the palpable pressure to do well, whether the demands come from parents or the student, said Silver.
Adjusting to college also influences identity a phenomenon Silver has termed Identity Disorientation. “When students head off to college, the familiar people are no longer there to reinforce the identity these students have created for themselves.” This can make students “disoriented and feel a loss of their sense of self,” contributing to symptoms of depression and anxiety.
A shaky identity and lack of confidence can lead college students “to make poor choices about drinking and drugs,” said Silver. In fact, according to the National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse (CASA) report, Wasting the Best and the Brightest: Substance Abuse at America’s Colleges and Universities, 45 percent of college students binge drink and nearly 21 percent abuse prescription or illegal drugs.
For some students, college isn’t the first time they encounter depression and anxiety. Because of advancements in psychotherapy and medication, “we’re seeing students matriculate into college who have had a previous psychological disorder,” said Dr. Kay.