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Adolescence: A Time of Growth and Change

Adolescence in American and Western European cultures is a time of enormous emotional as well as physical changes. Although each child is an individual and grows and develops in his or her own unique way, there are some predictable stages. When parents know what to expect, they can provide better help and support as their child moves through this often emotionally tumultuous time.

No Longer a Child

Changes in the parent-child relationship are normal and necessary during the teen years. The child’s “declaration of independence” and its realization result in a pulling away from parents. This can be accompanied by a rather predictable and usually short-lived depression as the child experiences sadness from the loss of the old tie to parents and a new separateness becomes established. As both the child and the parents struggle with this transition, the teenager often becomes difficult for the parent to control. He or she rejects family routines and parental authority and often withdraws from the family to incubate a new adolescent identity. It’s not uncommon for the formerly affectionate child to object to touch, to walk at a distance from parents when at the mall, or to spend long hours alone in his or her room while the rest of the family enjoys time together.

The Emergence of Peers

The emptiness created by separating from parents often is masked by an allegiance to peers and to adolescent culture. The walls of the adolescent’s room are covered with posters of this year’s teen cultural icons. Toys and games are replaced with CDs, TVs, telephones, computers, and cell phones. Girls hang out together, and so do the guys — in school, at parties, at hotspots, on the phone, and now online. An evolving identity is expressed through clothing, slang, gestures, and new cultural heroes.

The adolescent peer group experience is stressful. The ease of childhood relationships is replaced by anxiety about how to “fit in.” There is constant tension around “being left out” or “not being good enough.” Predictable and recurring problems include: handling new situations and temptations; meeting the need for constant communication with peers; learning how to deal with new feelings in this new set of relationships; competition around status and possessions; and the need for money to fund this new lifestyle. In addition, there is the continuing pressure of schoolwork, conflicts with family, and the somewhat abstract challenge of preparing for an uncertain future.

Dating as a Solution

Dating can seem to be a solution to the loneliness and anxiety at the core of the adolescent experience. Having a steady relationship can be a refuge from family tensions and prop up the shaky new “teen” identity. It can be a buffer against difficult interactions with peers and provide an opportunity to explore new feelings and sexual urges.

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But this “solution” of dating has its own set of problems. Relationships are never entirely easy, at any age. Emotional neediness, coupled with a shaky sense of identity and anxieties about new feelings, can be overwhelming.

Emotional Neediness

Neediness can make the teen feel dependent and fearful about breaking up with a new dating partner. Dependency and fear can make people demanding. The hidden messages beneath the demands are: “Protect me from my neediness by never leaving me” or “Protect me from my self-doubts by always being reassuring” or “Protect me from my urges by always satisfying them.” When demands are frustrated, then people can become controlling and threatening. The underlying messages become, “If you don’t meet my needs, I won’t meet yours” or “Prove that you love me.” When a person has not yet developed social skills or good role models for how to deal with these feelings, they can lead to abusive tactics, including emotional blackmail, insults, physical intimidation, and threats of abandonment.

Another common defense against feeling dependent and scared is to pretend that it isn’t so and to insist that the other person is the “weak” one. To prove it, a person can insist on being the “strong one” who takes care of others who are “weak and problem-ridden.” Alternatively, he or she can be emphatically independent, never sticking with a relationship, or never getting involved at all. These ploys usually are a cover for an inner neediness that is not being acknowledged.

A Shaky Sense of Identity

Most adolescents struggle with a shaky sense of their new identity. They have not had the time and experience to sort out their own identity from the teenager stereotype they have been impersonating. Cultural stereotypes of the “ideal” male and the “perfect female” can be especially compelling and damaging. This can make for dating problems, as teens struggle with questions like: “How can I withstand the pressures of a relationship if I am unsure about myself?” or “How can I handle the danger of losing myself in the relationship?” Teens need to discover who they really are and to gain confidence in asserting themselves to be able to sustain a relationship with another person.

Some teenagers do lose themselves. They center entirely on the other person, perhaps relieved to hand over to the other person the tough task of finding and asserting themselves. They find relief from their own confusion by taking on themes like: “I will be what you want” or “I will be all yours.” Other teenagers defend against losing themselves by becoming rigid and obnoxious, unbending in their self-assertion, inconsiderate of other persons’ feelings, and disrespectful of their rights.

Anxiety about Feelings and Urges

Another problem for teens is how to handle their moods, sexual urges, and feelings. Strategies of abstinence or indulgence can be problematic. Some adolescents try to cope by using alcohol, drugs or food to reduce or numb their feelings. Others happen on equally destructive methods for distraction, like rigid control of eating, bodybuilding, cutting, or retreating into lethargy. More constructive strategies can be an intense involvement with a sport, overemphasis on school and grades, or a single-minded pursuit of a goal.

Relationships as a Learning Process

Often teenagers go through an intense and painful relationship phase, ultimately pulling back from such relationships, at least for a while. This is not simply a negative reaction to being hurt. It can be a chance to recenter and to face their future. In the aftermath of a breakup, the teen can regroup and integrate new information about him or herself. Lessons available at that time include: “I can survive the breakup of a relationship;” “I can assert myself;” “I can stand on my own two feet;” “I don’t have to put up with abuse;” “I can deal with my feelings and urges without getting so scared;” and “I don’t have to be afraid of what others say about me.”

Some teens put dating aside and become more focused on work or preparing for a career. They seek out friendships rather than intense relationships. They enjoy becoming more comfortable socially and being more assertive in a more effective and less demanding way. They build confidence in themselves, especially around making decisions and taking care of themselves. They begin to define their own values. As elements of the next stage are established, new dating relationships become possible. These relationships have a much better chance of evolving into longer-term partnerships capable of handling the challenges and opportunities of adulthood.

The Need for Support

As teenagers experience the problems of neediness, shaky identity, and overwhelming feelings, and stumble through their first attempts at dating and relationships, it is very helpful to have the understanding and support of parents, other adults, the old peer group, newer friends, and new partners.

Parents can play a key role by continuing to love their children no matter what happens, by being realistic relationship “veterans” who have learned some things along the way, by comforting them when they are hurting, by supporting the positive, by setting limits which may be fought against and yet appreciated, by encouraging their children to continue to pursue new experiences and relationships even though they may be painful, by espousing values which will sooner or later become their children’s values, by not preaching or using their own experience as a “good” or “bad” example, and by reminding their child of the bigger picture, including preparing and supporting them as they attempt to move to the next stage of life — young adulthood.

Other adults — aunts and uncles, parents of friends, teachers, coaches, employers— also can be very important supports. These relationships, being less complex than parent relationships, can give examples of other relationship possibilities, contribute to an adolescent’s confidence about being able to function and be appreciated “out in the world,” and provide a helping hand as the adolescent moves toward young adulthood.

The old peer group is there for support when the going gets tough with relationships. Many adolescents and adults reactivate their connection with their teenage cohort, especially when a relationship is problematic or breaking up. Keeping this option open can be important.

New friends provide support for moving ahead into the next phase of life — sharing the tensions, burdens, uncertainties and adventure. This can help teens avoid getting “stuck” in an unsatisfactory relationship rather than continuing to grow. Within the group of new friends, there may be someone who can become a relationship partner who is likely to be “in sync” in terms of maturation and who can share the road ahead, whatever that may be — marriage, parenthood, or new career opportunities.

In Western culture, adolescence is a time to develop one’s unique identity, to find ways to manage intense feelings and desires, and to begin to discover the richness of intimate relationships. In a complex society, mastering these life tasks can be challenging and painful as well as exciting and rewarding. Parents, community, and friends can provide critical support during this difficult time.

Adolescence: A Time of Growth and Change

Robert Stone

APA Reference
Stone, R. (2020). Adolescence: A Time of Growth and Change. Psych Central. Retrieved on October 26, 2020, from
Scientifically Reviewed
Last updated: 17 Jan 2020 (Originally: 17 May 2016)
Last reviewed: By a member of our scientific advisory board on 17 Jan 2020
Published on Psych All rights reserved.