Classical Texts in Psychology

(Return to Index)

 

CONDITIONED REFLEXES: AN INVESTIGATION OF THE
PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF THE CEREBRAL CORTEX

By Ivan P. Pavlov (1927)
Translated by G. V. Anrep (1927)

 

    Lecture I. The development of the objective method in investigating the physiological activities of the cerebral hemispheres. -- Concept of reflex. -- Variety of Reflexes. -- Signal-reflexes, the most fundamental physiological characteristic of the hemispheres.

    Lecture II. Technical methods employed in the objective investigation of the functions of the cerebral hemispheres. -- Response to signals as reflex action. -- Unconditioned and conditioned reflexes.--Necessary conditions for the development of conditioned reflexes

    Lecture III. The formation of conditioned reflexes by means of conditioned and direct stimuli. -- Agencies which can be used as conditioned stimuli. -- Inhibition of conditioned reflexes: External inhibition.

    Lecture IV. Internal inhibition of conditioned reflexes: (a) Extinction

    Lecture V. Internal inhibition of conditioned reflexes: (b) Conditioned inhibition

    Lecture VI. Internal inhibition of conditioned reflexes: (c) Delay

    Lecture VII. The analysing and synthesizing activity of the cerebral hemispheres: (a) The initial generalization of conditioned stimuli. (b) Differential inhibition

    Lecture VIII. The analysing and synthesizing activity of the cerebral hemispheres (continued): (c) Examples of the analysis of stimuli. (d) Synthesis and analysis of compound simultaneous stimuli. (e) Synthesis and analysis of compound successive stimuli

    Lecture IX. The irradiation and concentration of nervous processes in the cerebral cortex: (a) The irradiation and concentration of inhibition within a single analyser

    Lecture X. Irradiation and concentration of nervous processes in the cerebral hemispheres (continued): (b) Irradiation and concentration of inhibition over the entire cortex; (c) Irradiation and concentration of excitation

    Lecture XI. Mutual induction of excitation and inhibition: (a) positive induction. (b) negative induction

    Lecture XII. Interaction of irradiation and concentration of with induction

    Lecture XIII. The cortex as a mosaic of functions: (a) Examples of the mosaic character of the cortex and the more obvious ways in which this character is acquired; (b) Variability of the physiological properties of different points of the cortex in some instances, stability in others. -- The cortex as a united complex dynamic system

    Lecture XIV. The development of inhibition in the cortex under the influence of conditioned stimuli

    Lecture XV. Internal inhibition and sleep as one and the same process with regard to their intimate mechanism

    Lecture XVI. Transition stages between the alert state and complete sleep: Hypnotic stages

    Lecture XVII. The different types of nervous system. -- Pathological disturbances of the cortex, Result of functional interference

    Lecture XVIII. Pathological disturbances of the cortex, Result of functional interference (continued)

    Lecture XIX. Pathological disturbances of the cortex, Result of surgical interference: (a) General disturbances of the cortical activity; (b) Disturbances of the acoustic analyser

    Lecture XX. Pathological disturbances of the cortex, Result of surgical interference (continued): (c) In the visual analyser; (d) In the tactile analyser; (e) Occurring after extirpation of the frontal lobes; (f) In the thermal cutaneous analyser; (g)Arising after extirpation of the gyrus pyriformis; (h) In the motor analyser

    Lecture XXI. Pathological disturbances of the cortex, Result of surgical interference (continued): Attempt to correlate the general postoperative behaviour of the animals with the disturbances in the activity of individual analysers

    Lecture XXII. The general characteristic of the present investigation and its special difficulties. -- Discovery of certain errors necessitating the modification of some earlier interpretations

    Lecture XXIII. The experimental results obtained with animals in their application to man

    Bibliography