The way to stop arguing is to stop arguing. Arguing with your parents when their perspective is so different from yours is a losing situation. You can’t win. So get out of the contest.
One of my teachers used to tell us that the best way out of fights is to take the “sail out of someone’s wind.” I know. That’s backwards from the usual expression. But think about it. When someone is huffing and puffing with anger and yelling irrational things, they need you to respond to justify their behavior. If you respond in kind, you are giving them a pay off for the yelling.
If instead, you “lower your sail” and calmly say something like “I’m really sorry you feel that way. I’ll try to do better,” if usually deflates them.
Sometimes, when I tell this story, people reply that it isn’t fair or isn’t right or why should they give in? To which I reply “Do you need to be right or do you want to end the fight?” Rational discussions don’t happen in the middle of a fight. You can’t be rational when you are dealing with someone’s irrationality. Drop your sail. You can alway go back later — if the other person is willing — and talk about how to not let it happen again. That’s a big “if”. If the other person needs the fight or needs to “win”, don’t waste your breath.
I am curious why your mother thinks you can’t take care of yourself. Is that at all justified? If so, maybe a way to reduce the tension in the house is to ask her to teach you to cook or how to maintain a household. Those are important skills for you to hone while you are still home.
I also wonder if your family is among those who have been quarantined these last few months. It could be that something you said was the lightening rod for your parents’ anxieties about the pandemic and perhaps financial worries. If so, the way to deal with that is to see if they would be willing to talk about how all of you can manage in the days and weeks ahead without getting on each others’ nerves.
I wish you well.