You are in a very difficult situation. You can’t change another person, especially if that person doesn’t think he needs to change. In addition, there is a power differential here that makes it almost impossible to talk to the boss without risking your job. As you pointed out, the time you tried to give your boss feedback, he reasserted his superior position. You weren’t acting like a child. He was acting like an authoritarian “parent”. He keeps his workers off balance by screaming and by being so inconsistent. You never know what to expect. If he keeps this up, he is likely to lose customers as well as staff.
Frankly, I think you should start looking for another job. Your boss is unlikely to change. The workplace is toxic. In the meantime, I hope you can hold onto the perspective that your boss’ behavior has very little to do with you. Let his comments roll off your back. They are loud but they are meaningless. I also very much hope you have a good support system outside of work to regularly remind you that you are okay and he’s not.
I wish you well.